1 Julie Peteet, Lebanon1'altrtinianRefugeesinthePost-WarPeriod (December 1997), Writenet Country Papers (available on the internet at http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country /writenet/wrilbn.hmt). 2 Nur Masalha, ALandWithoutaPeople:Israel,TransferandthePalestinians,1949-1996, London, Faber and Faber, 1997, p. 135; Oren Yiftachel, PlanningaMs.redRegioninIsrael, Aldershot, England, Avebury, 1992, appendix I, p. 313.
3 Salim Tamari, PalestinianRtfugeeNegotiations:FromMadridtoOsloII, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1996, pp. 38 and 45. 4 US Committee for Refugees, CountryReports:Jordan (available on the internet through: http://wwwrefugees.org/world/countryrpt/mideast/jordan.htm). ).
5 American Friends Service Committee, "The Future of the Palestine Refugees", memorandum by Howard Wriggins dated 11 March 1949, quoted in Benjamin Schiff, RefugeesuntotheThirdGeneration, New York, Syracuse University Press, 1995, pp. 17-18. Schiff, op. cit., p. 272. Fawaz Turki, ThcDisinherited:Journalofa PalestinianExile, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1972, p. 49. See also A.L. Tibawi, "Visions of the Return: The Palestine Arab
cont. Refugees in Arabic Poetry and Art", MiddleEast Journal, vol. 17, no. 5 1963, pp. 507-526. 8 Yezid Sayigh, ArmedStruggleandtheSearchforState:ThePalestinianNationalMovement,1949-1993, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997, p. 46. 9 On refugee "infiltration" into Israel, see Benny Morris, Israel'sBorderWars,1949-1956:ArabInfsltration,IsraeliRetaliation,andtheCountdamntotheSuezWar, Oxford, Clarendon Press, rev. edn, 1997, pp. 28-68; David McDowall, ThePalestinians,:TheRoadtoNationhood, London, Minority Rights Publications, 1994, pp. 35-36. 10 Tom Segev, 1949:TheFirstIsraelis, New York, The Free Press, 1986, p. 52.
11 Morris, op.cit., pp. 145-147. Morris writes: "The IDF's shoot-to-kiu orders, minings, expulsion operations, and retaliatory strikes...all, to one degree or another, involved state- authorized or, at least, permitted killing of unarmed civilians. Together, they reflected a pervasive attitude among the Israeli public that Arab life was cheap" (p.178). "During the first years of the state, Israeli troops and police more or less routinely beat captured infiltrators, sometimes torturing them, and occasionally raped and/or murdered them" (p. 179). "But the most common and serious atrocities involved the murder of captured infiltrators" (p.181). "Normally, the Israeli authorities proved able to whitewash or cover up such incidents (if word of them leaked out), at least to the satisfaction of the Israeli public and American Jewry" (p. 182). 12Ibid., pp. 177-178. 13 Schiff, op.cit.,p. 9.
14 For more on Haj Amin al-Husayni, see Philip Mattar, TheMuftiofJerusalem:Al-HajjAminal-HusayniandthePalestinianNational Movement, New York, Columbia University Press, 1988; Taysir Jbara, PalestinianLeaderHajj Aminal-Husayni:Mu, fliofJerusalem, Princeton, The Kingston Press, 1985; Muhammad Amin al-Husayni, TruthsRegardingthePalestinianProblem, 2nd edn, Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabai Bimisr, 1957, in Arabic.
ls Avi Shlaim, "The Rise and Fall of the All-Palestine Government in Gaza", JournalofPalestineStudier, vol. 20, no. 1, 1990, pp. 37-53.
16Ibid., p. 43.
17 Sayigh, op.cit., pp. 48-49.
ie Schiff, op.cit., p.272.
19 Joshua Teitelbaum, "The Palestine Liberation Organization", in Ami Ayalon and Haim Shaked (eds.), MiddleEastContemporarySurpey, vol. 12, Boulder, Westview Press, 1988, pp. 252-253. 20 For two English versions of the Charter, see Leila S. Kadi, BasicDocumentsoftheArmedPalestinianResistanceMovement, Beirut, PLO Research Centre, 1969, pp. 137-142; Zuhair Diab (ed.), InternationalDocumentsonPalestine,1968, Beirut, Insititute for Palestine Studies, 1971, pp. 393-395.
Al Rashid Khalidi, "The Palestinian People: 'Iiuenty=Iivo Years After 1967", in Intifada:ThePalestinianUprisingAgainstIsraeliOccupation, ed. Zachary Lockman and Joel Beinin, London, I.B Tauris, 1990, pp. 113-125; Elia Zureik, PalestiniansRefugeesandthePeaceProcess, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1996, p. 89. zz Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal, Palestinians:The MakingofPeople, New York: The Free Press, 1993, p. 224. z3 Ibid. z4 Zureik, op.cit., p. 90.
zs RWG is one of the five multilateral negotiations in which over forty states and international organizations discuss the issue of Palestinian refugees and their future in the Middle East peace process. There are six regional parties to the RWG: Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon and the Palestinians. Both Syria and Lebanon have boycotted the RWG. Canada is the gavelholder. z° Tamari, op.cit.,p. 1.
27Ibid., p. 2. 28 Peteet, op.cit. 29 Lamia Saleh Raei, TheForgottenPopulation:ACaseStudyofthePalestiniansinCairo, MA thesis submitted to the Department of Anthropology, Sociology, and Psychology, American University of Cairo, 1995. 30 McDowall, op.cit., p. 148.
3i Tamari, op.cit., p. 3. 3z US Committee for Refugees, CountryReports:Lebanon (available on the internet through http://wwwrefugees.org/world/countrYr�t/mideast/lebanon.htm). 33 Husayn Sha'aban, "What do the Palestinians in Lebanon Say?", Majallatal-Dirasatal-Filastiniyya, no. 19, summer 1995, pp. 177-195. 34 Zureik, op.cit.,p. 1. 3s Ibid., pp. 89 and 94-95. 36 Tamari, op.cit., pp. 2 and 38. 37 Wadie Said, "The Obligations of Host Countries to Refugees Under International Law: The Case of Lebanon", in Naseer Aruri (ed.), PalestinianRefugees:TheRight of Return, London, Pluto Press, 2001, p.123; Jaber Suleiman, "The Palestinian Liberation Organization: From the Right of Return to Bantustan", in Aruri, op.cit., pp. 87-102.
3a US Committee for Refugees, op.cit. a9 Tamari, op.cit., p. 2. 4o Shadia Matar, PalestinianRefugees,a MaterialandSpiritualHomeland (available on the internet at http://wwwmedmedia.org/review/numero3/en/art7.htm). ).
41 Zurcik, op.cit., pp. 89 and 94. 42 Pcteet, op. cit.�Sayigh,op.ett.,p.57.
'� Elia Zureik, "The Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return", Majallatal-Dirasatal-Filattiniyya, no. 19, summer 1994, pp. 68-81. as Abdul Shafi, Hidair, 1991. Address delivered to the Madrid Peace Conference, 31 October 1991 (available on the internet through http://www.israel-mfa.govil). 46 Palestinian National Authority, PalestinianRefugeesandtheRightofReturn, Jerusalem, Ministry of Information, 1995. 4� Tamari, op.cit., p. 42. 4g Zureik, op.cit., p. 94.
49Ibid., p. 92. so Tamari, op.cit.,p. 45.
st Ziad Abu Zayyad, "The Palestinian right of return: a realistic approach" Palestine-IsraelJournal, no. 2, spring 1994, p. 77. 52 Ibid. 53 Rashid Khalidi, "Observations on the Palestinian right of return", in ThePalestinianRightofReturn Cambridge, MA, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, paper no. 6, 1990, p. 7. s4 Rashid Khalidi, "Toward a Solution", in PalestinianRefugees,:Their1'problemandFuture, Washington, DC, Center for Policy Analysis on Palestine, 1994.
ss Tamari, op.cit. ss Ibid. p.47. 57 Cited by Rex Brynen, "Palestinian Refugees and Final Status: Key Issues" (available on the internet through http://wwwarts.mcgill.ca/MEPP/PRRN/prissues.html). ss "Commentary: Refugees and Final Status Negotiations", ShamlNewsletter (Ramallah), no. 3, June 1996, pp. 4-5.
s9 Khalidi, "Toward a Solution". 60 Tamari, op.tit., p. 47. 61 Zureik, op.tit., p. 94.
bz Tamari, op.cit., p. 38. 63 Khalidi, op.cit. Sami Hadawi and Atef Kubursi, PalertinianRightsandLossesin1948: AComprehensiveStudy, London: Saqi Books, 1988, p. 183. 65 Atef Kbursi "Valuing Palestinian Losses in Today's Dollars", in Naseer Aruri (ed.), PalestinianRefugees.TheRightof Return, London: Pluto Press, 2001, pp. 217-251. 66 Tamari, op.cit., pp. 40 and 47.
67 Rex Brynen, "The Funding of Palestinian Refugee Compensation" presented to the ISEPME refugee group, Harvard University, February 1996 (available on the internet through http: //www.arts . mcgill . ca/mepp/prrn/papers/brynen 1 .html ) . 68 Akram Hanieh, "The Camp David Papers",Journalof PalestineStudies, vol. 30, no. 2, 2001, p. 82.
69�, p. 92. Ibid., p. 94. 71Ibid. In the 1950s and the early 1960s there was a minority of left-wing and liberal Zionists, represented by the Mapam party and the small group of Ihud, who were prepared to accept the absorption of a very limited number of refugees in Israel within the framework of an overall peace settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. See, for instance, NewOutlook, December 1961, p. 9.
�3 This and several other Israeli allegations have been examined and discredited as being part of an Israeli disinformation campaign. See article in TheSpectator, 12 May 1961; Benny Morris, TheBirthelfPalestinianRefugeeProblem,1947-1949, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987; Simha Flapan, TheBirthof Israel:MythsandRealities, New York, Pantheon Books, 1987; Segev, op.cit.; Ilan Pappe, TheMakingoftheArab-IsraeliConflict,1947 1951, London: LB. Tauris, 1992; Nur Masalha, ExpulsionofthePalestinians,:TheConceptof"1ransftr"inZionistPoliticalThought,1881-1948, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992, pp. 173-199. 74 According to the UN Technical Committee on Refugees, the number of Palestinian refugees in August 1949 was "711,000", comprising about half of the total Palestinian population at that time (1.415 million). �5 Shimon Peres, TheNewMiddleEast, London, Shaftesbury, Element Books, 1993, p.198. �6 Hanieh, op.cit., p. 94.