The PLO, Resolution194 and the "right ofreturn":evolvingPalestinianattitudes towards therefugee question fromthe 1948nakba to the Camp David summit of July 2000

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1 Julie Peteet, Lebanon 1'altrtinian Refugees in the Post-War Period (December 1997), Writenet Country Papers (available on the internet at /writenet/wrilbn.hmt). 2 Nur Masalha, A Land Without a People: Israel, Transfer and the Palestinians, 1949-1996, London, Faber and Faber, 1997, p. 135; Oren Yiftachel, Planning a Region in Israel, Aldershot, England, Avebury, 1992, appendix I, p. 313.

3 Salim Tamari, Palestinian Rtfugee Negotiations: From Madrid to Oslo II, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1996, pp. 38 and 45. 4 US Committee for Refugees, Country Reports: Jordan (available on the internet through: ).

5 American Friends Service Committee, "The Future of the Palestine Refugees", memorandum by Howard Wriggins dated 11 March 1949, quoted in Benjamin Schiff, Refugees unto the Third Generation, New York, Syracuse University Press, 1995, pp. 17-18. Schiff, op. cit., p. 272. Fawaz Turki, Thc Disinherited: Journal of a Palestinian Exile, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1972, p. 49. See also A.L. Tibawi, "Visions of the Return: The Palestine Arab

cont. Refugees in Arabic Poetry and Art", Middle East Journal, vol. 17, no. 5 1963, pp. 507-526. 8 Yezid Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997, p. 46. 9 On refugee "infiltration" into Israel, see Benny Morris, Israel's Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab Infsltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdamn to the Suez War, Oxford, Clarendon Press, rev. edn, 1997, pp. 28-68; David McDowall, The Palestinians,: The Road to Nationhood, London, Minority Rights Publications, 1994, pp. 35-36. 10 Tom Segev, 1949: The First Israelis, New York, The Free Press, 1986, p. 52.

11 Morris, op. cit., pp. 145-147. Morris writes: "The IDF's shoot-to-kiu orders, minings, expulsion operations, and retaliatory strikes...all, to one degree or another, involved state- authorized or, at least, permitted killing of unarmed civilians. Together, they reflected a pervasive attitude among the Israeli public that Arab life was cheap" (p.178). "During the first years of the state, Israeli troops and police more or less routinely beat captured infiltrators, sometimes torturing them, and occasionally raped and/or murdered them" (p. 179). "But the most common and serious atrocities involved the murder of captured infiltrators" (p.181). "Normally, the Israeli authorities proved able to whitewash or cover up such incidents (if word of them leaked out), at least to the satisfaction of the Israeli public and American Jewry" (p. 182). 12 Ibid., pp. 177-178. 13 Schiff, op. cit., p. 9.

14 For more on Haj Amin al-Husayni, see Philip Mattar, The Mufti ofJerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement, New York, Columbia University Press, 1988; Taysir Jbara, Palestinian Leader Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Mu, fli ofJerusalem, Princeton, The Kingston Press, 1985; Muhammad Amin al-Husayni, Truths Regarding the Palestinian Problem, 2nd edn, Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabai Bimisr, 1957, in Arabic.

ls Avi Shlaim, "The Rise and Fall of the All-Palestine Government in Gaza", Journal of Palestine Studier, vol. 20, no. 1, 1990, pp. 37-53.

16Ibid., p. 43.

17 Sayigh, op. cit., pp. 48-49.

ie Schiff, op. cit., p. 272.

19 Joshua Teitelbaum, "The Palestine Liberation Organization", in Ami Ayalon and Haim Shaked (eds.), Middle East Contemporary Surpey, vol. 12, Boulder, Westview Press, 1988, pp. 252-253. 20 For two English versions of the Charter, see Leila S. Kadi, Basic Documents of the Armed Palestinian Resistance Movement, Beirut, PLO Research Centre, 1969, pp. 137-142; Zuhair Diab (ed.), International Documents on Palestine, 1968, Beirut, Insititute for Palestine Studies, 1971, pp. 393-395.

Al Rashid Khalidi, "The Palestinian People: 'Iiuenty=Iivo Years After 1967", in Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation, ed. Zachary Lockman and Joel Beinin, London, I.B Tauris, 1990, pp. 113-125; Elia Zureik, Palestinians Refugees and the Peace Process, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1996, p. 89. zz Baruch Kimmerling and Joel Migdal, Palestinians: The Making of People, New York: The Free Press, 1993, p. 224. z3 Ibid. z4 Zureik, op. cit., p. 90.

zs RWG is one of the five multilateral negotiations in which over forty states and international organizations discuss the issue of Palestinian refugees and their future in the Middle East peace process. There are six regional parties to the RWG: Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Syria, Lebanon and the Palestinians. Both Syria and Lebanon have boycotted the RWG. Canada is the gavelholder. z° Tamari, op. cit., p. 1.

27Ibid., p. 2. 28 Peteet, op. cit. 29 Lamia Saleh Raei, The Forgotten Population: A Case Study of the Palestinians in Cairo, MA thesis submitted to the Department of Anthropology, Sociology, and Psychology, American University of Cairo, 1995. 30 McDowall, op. cit., p. 148.

3i Tamari, op. cit., p. 3. 3z US Committee for Refugees, Country Reports: Lebanon (available on the internet through�t/mideast/lebanon.htm). 33 Husayn Sha'aban, "What do the Palestinians in Lebanon Say?", Majallat al-Dirasat al- Filastiniyya, no. 19, summer 1995, pp. 177-195. 34 Zureik, op. cit., p. 1. 3s Ibid., pp. 89 and 94-95. 36 Tamari, op. cit., pp. 2 and 38. 37 Wadie Said, "The Obligations of Host Countries to Refugees Under International Law: The Case of Lebanon", in Naseer Aruri (ed.), Palestinian Refugees: The Right of Return, London, Pluto Press, 2001, p.123; Jaber Suleiman, "The Palestinian Liberation Organization: From the Right of Return to Bantustan", in Aruri, op. cit., pp. 87-102.

3a US Committee for Refugees, op. cit. a9 Tamari, op. cit., p. 2. 4o Shadia Matar, Palestinian Refugees, a Material and Spiritual Homeland (available on the internet at ).

41 Zurcik, op. cit., pp. 89 and 94. 42 Pcteet, op. cit. �Sayigh,op.ett.,p.57.

'� Elia Zureik, "The Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return", Majallat al-Dirasat al- Filattiniyya, no. 19, summer 1994, pp. 68-81. as Abdul Shafi, Hidair, 1991. Address delivered to the Madrid Peace Conference, 31 October 1991 (available on the internet through http://www.israel-mfa.govil). 46 Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return, Jerusalem, Ministry of Information, 1995. 4� Tamari, op. cit., p. 42. 4g Zureik, op. cit., p. 94.

49Ibid., p. 92. so Tamari, op. cit., p. 45.

st Ziad Abu Zayyad, "The Palestinian right of return: a realistic approach" Palestine-Israel Journal, no. 2, spring 1994, p. 77. 52 Ibid. 53 Rashid Khalidi, "Observations on the Palestinian right of return", in The Palestinian Right of Return Cambridge, MA, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, paper no. 6, 1990, p. 7. s4 Rashid Khalidi, "Toward a Solution", in Palestinian Refugees,: Their 1'problem and Future, Washington, DC, Center for Policy Analysis on Palestine, 1994.

ss Tamari, op. cit. ss Ibid. p.47. 57 Cited by Rex Brynen, "Palestinian Refugees and Final Status: Key Issues" (available on the internet through ss "Commentary: Refugees and Final Status Negotiations", Shaml Newsletter (Ramallah), no. 3, June 1996, pp. 4-5.

s9 Khalidi, "Toward a Solution". 60 Tamari, op. tit., p. 47. 61 Zureik, op. tit., p. 94.

bz Tamari, op. cit., p. 38. 63 Khalidi, op. cit. Sami Hadawi and Atef Kubursi, Palertinian Rights and Losses in 1948: A Comprehensive Study, London: Saqi Books, 1988, p. 183. 65 Atef Kbursi "Valuing Palestinian Losses in Today's Dollars", in Naseer Aruri (ed.), Palestinian Refugees. The Right of Return, London: Pluto Press, 2001, pp. 217-251. 66 Tamari, op. cit., pp. 40 and 47.

67 Rex Brynen, "The Funding of Palestinian Refugee Compensation" presented to the ISEPME refugee group, Harvard University, February 1996 (available on the internet through http: //www.arts . mcgill . ca/mepp/prrn/papers/brynen 1 .html ) . 68 Akram Hanieh, "The Camp David Papers",Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. 30, no. 2, 2001, p. 82.

69�, p. 92. Ibid., p. 94. 71 Ibid. In the 1950s and the early 1960s there was a minority of left-wing and liberal Zionists, represented by the Mapam party and the small group of Ihud, who were prepared to accept the absorption of a very limited number of refugees in Israel within the framework of an overall peace settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. See, for instance, New Outlook, December 1961, p. 9.

�3 This and several other Israeli allegations have been examined and discredited as being part of an Israeli disinformation campaign. See article in The Spectator, 12 May 1961; Benny Morris, The Birth elf Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987; Simha Flapan, The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities, New York, Pantheon Books, 1987; Segev, op. cit.; Ilan Pappe, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947 1951, London: LB. Tauris, 1992; Nur Masalha, Expulsion of the Palestinians,: The Concept of"1ransftr"in Zionist Political Thought, 1881-1948, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992, pp. 173-199. 74 According to the UN Technical Committee on Refugees, the number of Palestinian refugees in August 1949 was "711,000", comprising about half of the total Palestinian population at that time (1.415 million). �5 Shimon Peres, The New Middle East, London, Shaftesbury, Element Books, 1993, p.198. �6 Hanieh, op. cit., p. 94.


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