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References

1 All five Pakistani terrorists died in the attack. 2 Amongst others the organizations Jaish-c-Mohammed and Lashkar-e-Taiba were banned. Their respective leaders Masood Azhar and Hafiz Saeed were placed under house arrest. However, both men were released towards the end of 2002. Mr Azhar has been charged in India with organizing the suicide attack on the Indian Parliament.

3 Neither Nawaz Sharif nor Benazir Bhutto was allowed to contest the elections. With the exception of the religious parties no political rallies were permitted. The Legal Framework Order 2002 imposed an unprecedented set of qualifications for elections which excluded many seasoned politicians but which favoured candidates fielded by religious parties. In order to stand for election a candidate inter alia was required to be a graduate from a university, not to have been proclaimed an absconder (a provision which excluded Bena-r,ir Bhutto) nor to have defaulted on a loan, taxes or utility charges. On the other hand a qualification from a madrassa was sufficient to fulfil the minimum educational requirements.

4 As amended by Ordinance XIX of 1999 and Ordinances IV and XXIV of 2000.

5 Report not as yet available. It read as follows: "8A. Educational qualification for a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and a Provincial Assembly.- Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, the Senate (Election) Act, 1975 (LI of 1975), the Representation of People Act, 1976 (LXXXV of 1976), or any other law for the time being in force, a person shall not be qualified to be elected or chosen as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or a Provincial Assembly unless he is at least a graduate possessing a bachelor degree in any discipline or any degree recognized as equivalent by the University Grants Commission under the University Grants Commission Act, 1974 (XXIII of 1974)." Article 17 of the Constitution guarantees the right to form associations.

8 Article 25 of the Constitution guarantees the right to equality before the law. 9 This case validated Musharraf's coup subject to certain conditions. 1° At paragraph 2.

I1 The reported decision was not as yet available.

lz See DrMabmood-ur-Rebinan Faisal v. Secretary, Ministry ofLaw 1'I,D 1992 FSC 1.

13 The Intcrnational Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes.

14 Benazir Bhutto's PPP government did not enjoy a significant majority and thus found it extremely difficult to pass any legislation. is Though it seems that Pakistan has agreed to participate in the ICSID proceedings under protest presumably only to contest the jurisdiction of the Tribunal.

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