1 For a legal analysis of the legitimacy of the Chechen independence claim, see Tarcisio Gazzini,'Consid- erations on the Conflid in Chechnya, 17 HPLJ (1996), 93-toys. On the legal nature of the Chechen wars,
Rahim Kherad,'De la nature juridique du conflit tch6tch�ne', 104 RDIP (2000), 143-79. 2 The English translation of the Khasavyurt Accords can be found in Ivan Ribkin, Consent in Chechnya, Con- sent in Russia (London, 1998), 245.
3 Ibid, Appendices. 4 For a detailed analysis of human rights violations committed during the second war, see Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Report on the human rights situation in the Chechen Republic, Doc. 9732,13 March 2003, Rapporteur: Mar. Rudolf Binding. 5 Source of further information: Amnesty International, Chechnya - Human Rights Under attack, at http:// www.amnesty.org/russia/chechnya.html; Chechnya weekly, published by the Jamestown foundation, at http: //www.jamestown.org, Human Rights Watch, Chechnya: Renewed Catastrophe, at http://www.hrw.org/ campaigns/russia/chechnya/; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 'OSCE Assistance Group to Chechnya', at http://www.osce.org/chechnya/; Prague Watchdog, an online service that reports and disseminates information on the northern Caucasus region, focusing on human rights, humanitarian aid conditions, media access and coverage, and the local political situation. The service is supported with special grants provided by two prominent US-based donor institutions. http://www.watchdog.cz.
6 As regards the legal and political circumstances of Russia's accession to the CoE, see Bill Bowring,'Russias Accession to the Council of Europe and Human Rights: Compliance or Cross-Purposes?', 6 EHRLR (1997), 628-43. 7 PACE, opinion no. 193 (1996) on Russia's request for membership of the CoE. 8 PACE recommendation no. 1456 (2000), at http://www.assembly.coe.int.
9 Following the military coup d'etat in Turkey, the credentials of the Turkish delegation were not accepted between 1981 and 1984. 10 PACE resolution no. 1241 (2001). 11 PACE resolution no. 1323 (2003). 12 For a first evaluation of the respect of Russia's commitments with relation to the ECHR, see Bill Bowring, 'Russia's accession to the Council of Europe and Human Rights: Four Years On', 4 EHRLR (2000), 362- 79.
13 ECtHR Appl. 57942/00, Khashiyev v. Russia; ECtHR Appl. 57945/00, /Ikayeva v. Russia; ECtHR Appl. 57947/00, Isayeva v. Russia; ECtHR Appl. 57948/00, Yusupova v. Russia; ECtHR Appl. 57949/00, Bazayeva v. Russia; and ECtHR Appl. 57950/00, Isayeva v. Russia. 14 Article 52 of the ECHR sets out: 'On receipt of a request from the Secretary General of the Council of Europe any High Contracting Party shall furnish an explanation of the manner in which its internal law ensures the effective implementation of any of the provisions of the Convention'. 15 See Stephanie Rabiller, 'Le pouvoir d'enquete du Secretaire general du Conseil de 1'Europe - A propos de la demande d'explications a la Federation de Russie concernant la Tchetchenie', 4 RGDIP (2000), 965-84.
16 On 17 February 2000 Putin appointed a Special Representative for Chechnya. His main task is to collect complaints from the civilian population with regard to human rights violations and to inform the compe- tent authorities. His office is based in Znamenskoie. 17 The CoE Secretary General makes regularly a report on the presence of the experts, see at http:// www.coe.int/sg. 18 The mandate of the OSCE Assistance Group to Chechnya ended on 31 December 2002. 19 See at http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/states/rus.htm. 20 See resolution no. 1315 (2003).
21 CommDH/Rec(2002)1, at http://www.commissioner.coe.int. 22 The French Chechnya Committe (Comite Tchetchenie) speaks about 'a political suicide' of the CoE. See Comite Tchetchenie, Dix cles pour comprendre (Paris, 2003), 111.
23 PACE Information document no. 9688 of 28 January 2003. 24 NGOs contested the official results, see http://www.watchdog.cz, http://www.6dh.org/europ/russie.htm. 25 See the text at http:/hvww.venice.coe-int. 26 Opinion on the Draft Constitution of the Chechen Republic, adopted by the Venice Commission at its 54 Plenary Meeting ( Venice,14-15 March 2003), CDL-AD (2003)2.
27 PACE Information document no. 9559 - Part I. 28 Rajan Manon and Graham E. Fuller, 'Russia's Ruinous Chechen War', 79(2) FA (2000), 32-44, at 44.