The social and human rights implications of climate change, adaptation and mitigation have received relatively little attention. Yet the human costs of climate change directly threaten fundamental human rights. Equity issues also arise in the climate change context because of its disproportionate impact on already vulnerable people, Indigenous peoples and communities. This article commences with a review of human rights and sustainable development in the specific context of the rights of Indigenous Peoples. It does not undertake a comprehensive study of all aspects of Indigenous environmental governance in the Arctic. Rather, it seeks to explore the wider principles and international standards that are potentially applicable to the social and human rights dimensions of sustainable development in the Arctic in the context of the impacts of climate change.