Recueil des cours, Collected Courses, Tome/Volume 278 (1999)


The Academy is an institution for the study and teaching of Public and Private International Law and related subjects. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law.
J. Barboza, Professor at the Catholic University of Buenos Aires
International Criminal Law
Since the Nuremberg and Tokyo judgments, criminal responsibility has played an increasing role in international law. This article gives a general view of the field, including recent developments such as the Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind, submitted by the International Law Commission to the General Assembly; the Courts for the ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda and the Statute for an International Criminal Court considered by the Rome Conference. `International Crimes of the State' are also considered, in the light of the developments in the ILC and of their likely projections.
F. Maupain, Special Adviser of the International Labour Office, Geneva
The ILO, Social Justice and the Global Economy
The Creation of the ILO was premised upon the idea that the activities of States to promote social justice must, if they are to be effective, be supported by international action. However, international action is supposed to be limited to activities of co-ordination and emulation, while initiatives for progress and the determination of the contents of such progress remain the business of each State individually. The globalization of the economy seems to create a dual challenge to this interpretation: first, by weakening States' capacity and desire to engage in individual actions: and second, by provoking a growing demand, in particular on the part of workers, for the definition of a universal common denominator of protection. This article examines the various implications of these new problems, in particular with regard to ILO's constitutional means of action.
Co-publication with: The Hague Academy of International Law.
Part I: The Nuremberg crimes and their evolution. I. International crimes. II. Criminal offences. Part II: The criminal responsibility. III. Individual and State responsibility in international crimes. IV. State crimes. Part III: International tribunals.V. Nuremberg and the ad hoc tribunals of the Security Council. VI. The Permanent International Criminal Court. Annexes. Bibliography.
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