Norway Spruce Conversion

Options and Consequences


Up to the end of the 19th century, many European forests suffered from devastation and soil deterioration, which caused fears of timber shortage. In order to counteract this possible shortage, many forest areas were reforested with coniferous tree species, especially Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst). Consequently, coniferous forests (often Norway spruce forests), consisting of trees of the same age, were established on many sites naturally dominated by broadleaves. As a result, damages caused by storm, snow, ice, drought, insects, fungi and possibly soil degradation seemed to occur more frequently in these secondary Norway spruce forests than in forests consisting of species better adapted to the ambient conditions. Conversion of Norway spruce stands may reduce these risks and upgrade biodiversity and the genetic potential of forests. As the economic results of forestry, future wood markets and various other goods and services that are provided to society by forest ecosystems, are affected by present and future decision-making, all aspects of conversion must be well understood.
EFI’s Regional Project Centre, CONFOREST, is continuously striving to improve implementation of conversion projects by consolidation of the expertise available in all forestry disciplines. This book comprises the findings in all conversion-related areas aiming to consider ecosystem needs while ensuring availability of silvicultural methods and operational feasibility of their implementation. Simultaneously, the cost-effectiveness of conversion scenarios is analysed by forestry economists. Since a change in public perception and ecological awareness may cause policy makers to either or not endorse further conversion efforts, input by experts in forestry politics is also provided.

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Foreword, Risto Paivinen
Introduction, H. Spiecker, J. Hansen, H. Hasenauer, E. Klimo, J.-P. Skovsgaard, H. Sterba and K. von Teuffel
Chapter 1 Glossary of terms and definitions relevant for conversion, Hubert Hasenauer
Chapter 2 History of secondary spruce forests in Europe, Elisabeth Johann, Mauro Agnoletti, Anna-Lena Axelsson, Matthias Bürgi, Lars Östlund, Xavier Rochel, Uwe Ernst Schmidt, Anton Schuler, Jens-Peter Skovsgaard and Verena Winiwarter
Chapter 3 Present distribution of secondary Norway spruce in Europe, Konstantin von Teuffel, Barbara Heinrich and Manuela Baumgarten
Chapter 4 Conversion of coniferous forests in social and political perspectives: Findings from selected countries with special respect to Germany, Ulrich Schraml and Karl-Reinhard. Volz
Chapter 5 Silvicultural strategies for conversion, Burghard von Lüpke, Christian Ammer, Max Bruciamacchie, Andreas Brunner, Jan Ceitel, Catherine Collet, Christine Deuleuze, Jonathan Diplacido, Jürgen Huss, Jaroslav Jankoviè, Petr Kantor, J. Bo Larsen, Manfred Lexer, Magnus Löf, Roman Longauer, Palle Madsen, Jerzy Modrzyñski, Reinhard Mosandl, Axel Pampe, Arne Pommerening, Igor Štefanèik, Vladimir Tesaø, Richard Thompson and Jacek Zientarski
Chapter 6 Ecological consequences of conversion, Jiøí Kulhavý, Torsten. Berger, Vladimír Èaboun, Axel Gottlein, Blahomil Grunda, Richard Heitz, Petr Kantor, Emil Klimo, Bohumír Lomský, Stanislav Niemtur, Karl-Eugen Rehfuess, Marian Slodièák, Hubert Sterba and Lars Vesterdal
Chapter 7 Operational factors influencing the efficiency in conversion, Tomas Nordfjell, Manuela Bacher, Lennart Eriksson, Jiri Kadlec, Karl Stampfer, Kjell Suadicani, Marian Suwala and Bruce Talbot
Chapter 8 Business economics of conversion and transformation - A case study of Norway spruce in Northern Germany, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Bernhard Möhring and Christian Wippermann