The Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

Proceedings of an International Workshop, University of Évora, Portugal, August 20-22, 2001

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Editors: Manuel Mota and Paulo Vieira
According to the European Plant Protection Organization, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantine organism at the top of the list of the pathogenic species. PWN may be found in North America (Canada, USA and Mexico) and in East Asia (Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan) and has a highly destructive capability towards conifers, in a relatively short time, causing serious economic damage in Japan, China and Korea. This nematode surveying is extremely important and a correct identification of nematode species associated with conifers is essential. Several conifers species are very susceptible (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster), the last one (maritime pine) is a particulary important economic specie in Portugal, and in southern Europe.
In 1999, this nematode was found and identified for the first time in Portugal and in Europe. During 1999 and 2000, the Portuguese government, following an alert provided to European Community officials initiated an extensive national survey. During 2000 and 2001, research has been carried out regarding the morphobiometric as well as molecular (DNA: ITS-RFLP) characterization of the collected populations, as well as closely related species of Bursaphelenchus.
The book details the Proceedings of an international workshop held at the University of Évora in 2001, covering all major aspects of the bioecology of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, its insect vectors and effects on the tree.
Topics covered are: global issues and national surveys; morphology and molecular methods of identification of PWN; ecology and epidemiology; quarantine issues; tree physiology, resistance and histopathology; biology of PWN and relationships to its cerambycid vectors; control methods. General quarantine and political views are also presented.

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Global issues and National Surveys: Session Organisers M. Mota, J. Webster M. MOTA, L. BONIFÁCIO, M.A. BRAVO, P. NAVES, A.C. PENAS, J. PIRES,E. SOUSA & P. VIEIRA — Discovery of pine wood nematode in Portugal and in Europe M. SERRÃO— Eradication programme for the pine wood nematodeinPortugal . Y. MAMIYA— Pine wilt disease in Japan B. YANG— The history, dispersal and potential threat of PWNinChina . K. SUZUKI— Pine wilt disease – a threat to pine forests in Europe R.J. BOLLA & R. WOOD— Pine wood nematode: pathogenic or political? . J.M. WEBSTER— The pine wood nematode: implications of factors past and present for pine wilt disease O. KULINICH— Surveys for the pine wood nematode in Russia H. BRAASCH &S.ENZIAN— The pine wood nematode problem in Europe – present situation and outlook M. ESCUER, M. ARIAS & A. BELLO— The genus Bursaphelenchus (Nematoda)inSpain C. MAGNUSSON, K.H. THUNES, S. AUKELAND SALINAS & B. ØKLAND— Survey of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,inNorway in 2000 H. MICHALOPOULOS-SKARMOUTSOS, G. SKARMOUTSOS, M. KALAPANIDA & A. KARAGEORGOS— Surveying and recording of nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus in conifer forests in Greece and pathogenicity of the most important species Morphology and molecular methods of identification: Session organisers H. Braasch, W. Burgermeister H. BRAASCH— Morphology of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus compared with other Bursaphelenchus species W. BURGERMEISTER & H. BRAASCH— Molecular evidence for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ×B. mucronatus hybridisation under experimental conditions P. ABAD—Satellite DNA used as a species specific probe for identification of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus P. VIEIRA, J. EISENBACK & M. MOTA— PWN-CD: a taxonomic database for the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and other Bursaphelenchus species [Abstr.] Ecology and epidemology; quarantine issues: Session organisers D. Bergdahl, K. Futai K. FUTAI & T. AKEMA— Some environmental conditionswhichinfluencethespreadofpinewilt D.R. BERGDAHL & S. HALIK— Persistence of the pine wood nematode in asymptomatic Scots pines D. MCNAMARA— Quarantine concerns about the methods used to demonstrate pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus spp. Physiology, resistance and histopathology: Session organisers Yu-Yang, K. Kuroda E. ASAI & K. FUTAI— The effects of simulated acid rain on the development of pine wilt disease K. KURODA— Characteristics of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) families resistant to pine wilt Y. WANG, L. HAIYAN, S. CHAORAN & G. ZHIHONG— A study of variation of pH between healthy and pine wilt diseased woods of several pine species [Abstr.] Biology of PWN and relationships to its cerambycid vectors: Session organisers M. Linit, B. Yang M. LINIT & S. AKBULUT— Pine wood nematode phoresis: the impact on Monochamus carolinensis life functions S. JIKUMARU &K. TOGASHI— Obstruction by Bursaphelenchus mucronatus of B. xylophilus boarding Monochamus alternatus A. YAMANE, R. IWATA, T. ISHIKAWA, H. KOBAYASHI, Y. HATTA, Y. HATTA & Y. MAMIYA— Pine wood nematode movement on, and migration from, the body surface of the Japanese pine sawyer during feeding on pinetwigsafteremergence B.J. YANG, L. WANG, F. XU &`P. ZHANG—Latent infection of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) and a new means of transmission by Monochamus alternatus D.R. BERGDAHL— An observation of Monochamus scutellatus associated with conifer trees damaged or killed by wildland fire [Abstr.] Control methods: Session organisers B. Yang, K. Nakamura K. NAKAMURA & N. YOSHIDA— Successful control of pine wilt disease in Fukiage-hama seacoast pine forest in southwestern Japan L. WANG, F. XU, L. JIANG, P. ZHANG & Y. YANG—Pathogens of the pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, in China M. LIN & M. ZHOU— Activity of avermectin for controlling the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus [Abstr.]
This volume will be of value and interest to researchers in the areas of forest nematology, forest entomology, forest protection, epidemiology, tree physiology and histopathology, as well as to decision-makers such as local administrators and government officials, due to the larger economic and political implications.