The Aramaic Levi Document

Edition, Translation, Commentary


The Aramaic Levi Document is a collection of larger and smaller fragments identified in Aramaic, Greek and Syriac. The discovery of Aramaic fragments among at Qumran confirmed its antiquity and it is now considered to be one of the oldest Jewish works outside the Hebrew Bible. It presents surprising ideas about the priesthood, sacrifice, wisdom and ideals of piety.
Greenfield, Stone and Eshel, each expert in their field, have for the first time presented this work as a single coherent whole (as far as the fragments allow). As well as the original texts, they have translated the book into English and written an extensive and detailed commentary as well as an introduction. Indexes, Concordances of Greek and Aramaic words complete the study. This book will move the study of this pivotal document to a new level.


EUR €151.00USD $186.00

Biographical Note

Michael E. Stone, Ph.D. (1965) in Near Eastern Languages, Harvard University is Professor of Gail Levin de Nur Professor of Comparative Religion and Armenian Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has published extensively on Second Temple period literature, Adam and Eve literature and Armenian texts including The Legend of Adam's Contract with Satan (2002), and Album of Armenian Paleography (2002). Esther Eshel, Ph.D. (2000) in Bible, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, is a Senior Lecturer at the Bible department of Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan. She had published extensively on the Dead Sea Scrolls as part of the Second Temple period Literature and on Semitic Epigraphy of the First and Second Temple Periods.

Review Quotes

' Throughout the commentary is effective in discussing matters of substance…This is a very user-friendly volume and is largely convinging.' G.J. Brooke, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2005. ' Die Edition sollte wegen ihren hohen Qualität und dem hohen Alter des ALD in keiner Bibliothek fehlen, die sich mit der Hebräischen Bibel beschäftigt.' A. Lange, Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft.

Table of contents

List of Illustrations and Tables Preface Acknowledgements Introduction 1. The Witnesses 2. Principles of Present Work The Present Work The Apparatus of Variants The Data Block and Versification Parallels The Translation 3. The Original Order of ALD 4. The Date and Provenance of ALD 5. Notes on Language of ALD 6. Testaments and Other Associated Works from Qumran Texts Related to the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Other “Testament” Texts The Testament of Qahat and the Visions of Amram An Apocryphal Text Apparently Related to ALD 7. Some Specific Aspects of ALD TPL 4:2 and ALD The Two Spirits Sapiential Characteristics of the Priesthood Levi’s Special Role in ALD Levi in TPL 8:14 The Travels of Levi and Jacob in ALD and TPL The Sacrificial Ordinances and Measures 1. The Sacrificial Ordinances 2. The Metrological List in 9:17–18 Postscript Critical Signs and Abbreviations Journals and Publications Citations of Dead Sea Scrolls Appendix Text & Translation Commentary Unplaced Fragments Aramaic Concordance Greek Concordance Bibliography Indexes ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES 1. Codicological Layout of the Geniza Manuscript 2. Cambridge Ms ms T.S. 16, fol. 94 recto Columns Cambridge a, f and e 3. Cambridge Ms ms T.S. 16, fol. 94 verso Columns Cambridge d, c and b 4. Bodleian Ms Heb. c. 27 recto Columns Bodleian b and a 5. Bodleian Ms Heb. c. 27 verso Columns Bodleian d and c 6. Genealogical Table