Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Volume 4

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Editor-in-Chief:
The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics is a major multi-volume reference work. It is a unique collaboration of hundreds of scholars from around the world and covers all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic, dealing with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic).

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Kees Versteegh, Ph.D. (1977) is professor of Arabic and Islam at the University of Nijmegen. He has published on the history of Arabic and the Arabic linguistic tradition, including The Arabic Language (Edinburgh, 1997).
VOLUME FOUR (Q – Y)

Q
Qàf (Lutz Edzard) ......................................................................................................................... 1–3
Qirà±àt (Mustafa Shah) .................................................................................................................. 4–11
Qiyàs (Miklós Maróth) ................................................................................................................. 11–14
Quantifi er (Peter Hallman) ............................................................................................................ 14–20
Qur±àn (Muhammad Abdel Haleem) ............................................................................................. 21–31

R
Rajaz (Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila) .................................................................................................... 32–37
Reanalysis (Mohssen Esseesy) ....................................................................................................... 37–43
Reciprocals (Joost Kremers) .......................................................................................................... 43–45
Redundancy (Ali Farghaly) ............................................................................................................ 45–50
Reduplication (Dina El Zarka) ...................................................................................................... 50–53
Refl exives (Joost Kremers) ............................................................................................................. 53–57
Register (Reem Bassiouney) ........................................................................................................... 57–60
Relative Clause (Mustafa Mughazy) ............................................................................................. 60–70
Relative Pronoun (Arabic Dialects) (Ángeles Vicente) ................................................................... 70–72
Religion and Language (Stefan Reichmuth) ................................................................................... 72–80
Resumption (Joseph Aoun) ........................................................................................................... 80–85
Rhyme (Soheir G. Mahfouz) ......................................................................................................... 86–92
Root (Petr Zemánek) ..................................................................................................................... 93–98
Ruq≠a (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 98–100

S
Sabab (Michael G. Carter) ............................................................................................................ 101–102
Saj≠ (Gert Borg) ............................................................................................................................. 103–106
Ían≠ànì Arabic (Janet Watson) ....................................................................................................... 106–115
Sandhi (Robert D. Hoberman) ...................................................................................................... 115–118
Íarf (Joyce Åkesson) ...................................................................................................................... 118–122
Saudi Arabia (Bruce Ingham) ........................................................................................................ 123–130
Script and Art (Adam Gacek) ........................................................................................................ 130–138
Second Language Acquisition (Mohammad T. Alhawary) ............................................................ 138–146
Second Language Teaching (Helle Lykke Nielsen) ........................................................................ 146–156
Secret Languages (Abderrahim Youssi) ......................................................................................... 156–160
Semantic Bleaching (Mohssen Esseesy) .......................................................................................... 160–164
Semantic Extension (Mohssen Esseesy) ......................................................................................... 164–169
Semitic Languages (Rainer Voigt) ................................................................................................. 170–179
Senegal (Fiona McLaughlin) .......................................................................................................... 179–185
Sentence (Moha Ennaji) ................................................................................................................ 185–191
Sentence Coordination (Heidi Lorimor) ........................................................................................ 191–195
Serial Verbs (Kees Versteegh) ........................................................................................................ 195–199
Ši≠r (Kamal Abu Deeb) .................................................................................................................. 199–214
Sicily (Alex Metcalfe) .................................................................................................................... 215–219
Íifa (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 219–222
Sign Languages (Bernadet Hendriks and Ulrike Zeshan) ............................................................... 222–235
Íila (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 235–237
Sinai Arabic (Rudolf de Jong) ....................................................................................................... 237–251
Slang (John Eisele) ......................................................................................................................... 251–259
Slavonic Languages (Václav Blažek) .............................................................................................. 259–267
Slips of the Tongue (Sabah M.Z. Safi ) ........................................................................................... 267–272
Somali (Andrzej Zaborski) ............................................................................................................ 272–275
Somalia (Mohamed Haji Mukhtar) ............................................................................................... 275–278
Songhay (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................. 279–282
Sound Symbolism (Kees Versteegh) ............................................................................................... 282–290
South Africa (Iris Hoedemaekers and Kees Versteegh) .................................................................. 290–295
South Arabian Loanwords (Martin R. Zammitt) ......................................................................... 295–297
South Arabian, Modern (Antoine Lonnet) .................................................................................... 297–300
South Semitic Languages (Anna Gr. Belova) ................................................................................. 300–315
Specifi city (Frederick M. Hoyt) ..................................................................................................... 315–320
Speech Accommodation (Sonia Shiri) ............................................................................................ 320–328
Speech Acts (Daniela Rodica Firanescu) ........................................................................................ 328–334
Speech Errors (Stefan A. Frisch) .................................................................................................... 334–338
Stem (Adamantios I. Gafos) .......................................................................................................... 338–344
Stress (René Kager) ....................................................................................................................... 344–353
Subject (Amira Agameya) .............................................................................................................. 354–359
Subordination (Mark S. LeTourneau) ........................................................................................... 360–367
Substrate (Wouter Kusters) ........................................................................................................... 367–375
Sudan (Al-Amin Abu-Manga) ....................................................................................................... 375–381
Swahili (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................... 381–387
Syllable Structure (Maher Jesry) .................................................................................................... 387–389
Syncope (David Teeple) ................................................................................................................. 389–391
Syntax (Elabbas Benmamoun) ....................................................................................................... 391–402
Syria (Peter Behnstedt) .................................................................................................................. 402–409

T
Ta≠addin (Zeinab Taha) ................................................................................................................ 410–416
Taboo (Avihai Shivtiel) ................................................................................................................. 416–421
Tafxìm (Muhammad Hasan Bakalla) ............................................................................................ 421–424
Tajik (John R. Perry) ..................................................................................................................... 424–425
Tajwìd (Kristina Nelson) ............................................................................................................... 425–428
Ta≠lìq (Valeriy Rybalkin) ............................................................................................................... 428–430
Taltala (Jacques Grand’Henry) ...................................................................................................... 430–431
Tamakkun (Janusz Danecki) ......................................................................................................... 431–433
Tamil (Torsten Tschacher) ............................................................................................................ 433–436
Tamyìz (Ramzi Baalbaki) .............................................................................................................. 436–437
Tanàzu≠ (Wafaa Batran Wahba) .................................................................................................... 437–442
Tanwìn (Georgine Ayoub) ............................................................................................................. 442–446
Taqdìr (Kees Versteegh) ................................................................................................................ 446–449
Tatar (Suzanne Wertheim) ............................................................................................................ 450–451
Telugu (V. Swarajya Lakshmi) ...................................................................................................... 452–454
Tense (Uri Horesh) ........................................................................................................................ 454–458
Terminology (Xavier Lelubre and Joseph Dichy) .......................................................................... 458–466
Terms of Address (Dilworth B. Parkinson) ................................................................................... 466–471
Textlinguistics (Said Faiq) ............................................................................................................. 471–476
Thai (Anthony Diller and Wilaiwan Khanittanan) ........................................................................ 476–477
Thamudic (Ernst Axel Knauf) ....................................................................................................... 477–483
Theme/Rheme (Nadia Anghelescu) ................................................................................................ 484–487
Theta Roles (Mark S. LeTourneau) ............................................................................................... 487–494
Topic and Comment (James Dickins) ............................................................................................ 494–501
Topicalization (Sven-Olov Dahlgren) ............................................................................................ 501–508
lemma list – volume four 11
Toponyms (Stefan Wild) ............................................................................................................... 508–515
Transcription (Philipp Reichmuth) ................................................................................................ 515–520
Transformational Grammar (Ferid Chekili) .................................................................................. 520–528
Transitivity (James Dickins and Janet C.E. Watson) ..................................................................... 528–535
Transitivity: Object (Usama Soltan) .............................................................................................. 535–542
Translation Literature (Uwe Vagelpohl) ........................................................................................ 542–548
Tripoli Arabic (Christophe Pereira) ............................................................................................... 548–556
Truncation (Lutz Edzard) .............................................................................................................. 557–559
Âuluμ (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 560–562
Tunis Arabic (Maik Gibson) ......................................................................................................... 563–571
Tunisia (Taïeb Baccouche) ............................................................................................................ 571–577
Turkey (Joan Smith Kocamahhul) ................................................................................................. 577–583
Turkish (Mark Kirchner) ............................................................................................................... 583–589
Turkish Loanwords (Stephan Procházka) ...................................................................................... 589–594

U
Urdu/Hindustani (Alain Désoulières) ............................................................................................. 595–603
Uyghur (Hans Nugteren) ............................................................................................................... 603–608
Uzbek (Hans Nugteren) ................................................................................................................. 608–612
Uzbekistan Arabic (Gerit Zimmermann) ....................................................................................... 612–623

V
Valency (Zouhair Maalej) ............................................................................................................. 624–627
Variation (Enam Al-Wer) ......................................................................................................
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