Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Volume 4

The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics is a major multi-volume reference work. It is a unique collaboration of hundreds of scholars from around the world and covers all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic, dealing with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic).

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VOLUME FOUR (Q – Y) Q Qàf (Lutz Edzard) ......................................................................................................................... 1–3 Qirà±àt (Mustafa Shah) .................................................................................................................. 4–11 Qiyàs (Miklós Maróth) ................................................................................................................. 11–14 Quantifi er (Peter Hallman) ............................................................................................................ 14–20 Qur±àn (Muhammad Abdel Haleem) ............................................................................................. 21–31 R Rajaz (Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila) .................................................................................................... 32–37 Reanalysis (Mohssen Esseesy) ....................................................................................................... 37–43 Reciprocals (Joost Kremers) .......................................................................................................... 43–45 Redundancy (Ali Farghaly) ............................................................................................................ 45–50 Reduplication (Dina El Zarka) ...................................................................................................... 50–53 Refl exives (Joost Kremers) ............................................................................................................. 53–57 Register (Reem Bassiouney) ........................................................................................................... 57–60 Relative Clause (Mustafa Mughazy) ............................................................................................. 60–70 Relative Pronoun (Arabic Dialects) (Ángeles Vicente) ................................................................... 70–72 Religion and Language (Stefan Reichmuth) ................................................................................... 72–80 Resumption (Joseph Aoun) ........................................................................................................... 80–85 Rhyme (Soheir G. Mahfouz) ......................................................................................................... 86–92 Root (Petr Zemánek) ..................................................................................................................... 93–98 Ruq≠a (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 98–100 S Sabab (Michael G. Carter) ............................................................................................................ 101–102 Saj≠ (Gert Borg) ............................................................................................................................. 103–106 Ían≠ànì Arabic (Janet Watson) ....................................................................................................... 106–115 Sandhi (Robert D. Hoberman) ...................................................................................................... 115–118 Íarf (Joyce Åkesson) ...................................................................................................................... 118–122 Saudi Arabia (Bruce Ingham) ........................................................................................................ 123–130 Script and Art (Adam Gacek) ........................................................................................................ 130–138 Second Language Acquisition (Mohammad T. Alhawary) ............................................................ 138–146 Second Language Teaching (Helle Lykke Nielsen) ........................................................................ 146–156 Secret Languages (Abderrahim Youssi) ......................................................................................... 156–160 Semantic Bleaching (Mohssen Esseesy) .......................................................................................... 160–164 Semantic Extension (Mohssen Esseesy) ......................................................................................... 164–169 Semitic Languages (Rainer Voigt) ................................................................................................. 170–179 Senegal (Fiona McLaughlin) .......................................................................................................... 179–185 Sentence (Moha Ennaji) ................................................................................................................ 185–191 Sentence Coordination (Heidi Lorimor) ........................................................................................ 191–195 Serial Verbs (Kees Versteegh) ........................................................................................................ 195–199 Ši≠r (Kamal Abu Deeb) .................................................................................................................. 199–214 Sicily (Alex Metcalfe) .................................................................................................................... 215–219 Íifa (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 219–222 Sign Languages (Bernadet Hendriks and Ulrike Zeshan) ............................................................... 222–235 Íila (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 235–237 Sinai Arabic (Rudolf de Jong) ....................................................................................................... 237–251 Slang (John Eisele) ......................................................................................................................... 251–259 Slavonic Languages (Václav Blažek) .............................................................................................. 259–267 Slips of the Tongue (Sabah M.Z. Safi ) ........................................................................................... 267–272 Somali (Andrzej Zaborski) ............................................................................................................ 272–275 Somalia (Mohamed Haji Mukhtar) ............................................................................................... 275–278 Songhay (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................. 279–282 Sound Symbolism (Kees Versteegh) ............................................................................................... 282–290 South Africa (Iris Hoedemaekers and Kees Versteegh) .................................................................. 290–295 South Arabian Loanwords (Martin R. Zammitt) ......................................................................... 295–297 South Arabian, Modern (Antoine Lonnet) .................................................................................... 297–300 South Semitic Languages (Anna Gr. Belova) ................................................................................. 300–315 Specifi city (Frederick M. Hoyt) ..................................................................................................... 315–320 Speech Accommodation (Sonia Shiri) ............................................................................................ 320–328 Speech Acts (Daniela Rodica Firanescu) ........................................................................................ 328–334 Speech Errors (Stefan A. Frisch) .................................................................................................... 334–338 Stem (Adamantios I. Gafos) .......................................................................................................... 338–344 Stress (René Kager) ....................................................................................................................... 344–353 Subject (Amira Agameya) .............................................................................................................. 354–359 Subordination (Mark S. LeTourneau) ........................................................................................... 360–367 Substrate (Wouter Kusters) ........................................................................................................... 367–375 Sudan (Al-Amin Abu-Manga) ....................................................................................................... 375–381 Swahili (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................... 381–387 Syllable Structure (Maher Jesry) .................................................................................................... 387–389 Syncope (David Teeple) ................................................................................................................. 389–391 Syntax (Elabbas Benmamoun) ....................................................................................................... 391–402 Syria (Peter Behnstedt) .................................................................................................................. 402–409 T Ta≠addin (Zeinab Taha) ................................................................................................................ 410–416 Taboo (Avihai Shivtiel) ................................................................................................................. 416–421 Tafxìm (Muhammad Hasan Bakalla) ............................................................................................ 421–424 Tajik (John R. Perry) ..................................................................................................................... 424–425 Tajwìd (Kristina Nelson) ............................................................................................................... 425–428 Ta≠lìq (Valeriy Rybalkin) ............................................................................................................... 428–430 Taltala (Jacques Grand’Henry) ...................................................................................................... 430–431 Tamakkun (Janusz Danecki) ......................................................................................................... 431–433 Tamil (Torsten Tschacher) ............................................................................................................ 433–436 Tamyìz (Ramzi Baalbaki) .............................................................................................................. 436–437 Tanàzu≠ (Wafaa Batran Wahba) .................................................................................................... 437–442 Tanwìn (Georgine Ayoub) ............................................................................................................. 442–446 Taqdìr (Kees Versteegh) ................................................................................................................ 446–449 Tatar (Suzanne Wertheim) ............................................................................................................ 450–451 Telugu (V. Swarajya Lakshmi) ...................................................................................................... 452–454 Tense (Uri Horesh) ........................................................................................................................ 454–458 Terminology (Xavier Lelubre and Joseph Dichy) .......................................................................... 458–466 Terms of Address (Dilworth B. Parkinson) ................................................................................... 466–471 Textlinguistics (Said Faiq) ............................................................................................................. 471–476 Thai (Anthony Diller and Wilaiwan Khanittanan) ........................................................................ 476–477 Thamudic (Ernst Axel Knauf) ....................................................................................................... 477–483 Theme/Rheme (Nadia Anghelescu) ................................................................................................ 484–487 Theta Roles (Mark S. LeTourneau) ............................................................................................... 487–494 Topic and Comment (James Dickins) ............................................................................................ 494–501 Topicalization (Sven-Olov Dahlgren) ............................................................................................ 501–508 lemma list – volume four 11 Toponyms (Stefan Wild) ............................................................................................................... 508–515 Transcription (Philipp Reichmuth) ................................................................................................ 515–520 Transformational Grammar (Ferid Chekili) .................................................................................. 520–528 Transitivity (James Dickins and Janet C.E. Watson) ..................................................................... 528–535 Transitivity: Object (Usama Soltan) .............................................................................................. 535–542 Translation Literature (Uwe Vagelpohl) ........................................................................................ 542–548 Tripoli Arabic (Christophe Pereira) ............................................................................................... 548–556 Truncation (Lutz Edzard) .............................................................................................................. 557–559 Âuluμ (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 560–562 Tunis Arabic (Maik Gibson) ......................................................................................................... 563–571 Tunisia (Taïeb Baccouche) ............................................................................................................ 571–577 Turkey (Joan Smith Kocamahhul) ................................................................................................. 577–583 Turkish (Mark Kirchner) ............................................................................................................... 583–589 Turkish Loanwords (Stephan Procházka) ...................................................................................... 589–594 U Urdu/Hindustani (Alain Désoulières) ............................................................................................. 595–603 Uyghur (Hans Nugteren) ............................................................................................................... 603–608 Uzbek (Hans Nugteren) ................................................................................................................. 608–612 Uzbekistan Arabic (Gerit Zimmermann) ....................................................................................... 612–623 V Valency (Zouhair Maalej) ............................................................................................................. 624–627 Variation (Enam Al-Wer) ......................................................................................................