Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Volume 4

Series: 

Editor-in-Chief:
The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics is a major multi-volume reference work. It is a unique collaboration of hundreds of scholars from around the world and covers all relevant aspects of the study of Arabic, dealing with all levels of the language (pre-Classical Arabic, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Arabic vernaculars, mixed varieties of Arabic).
General Editor:
Kees Versteegh, University of Nijmegen

Associate Editors:
Mushira Eid, University of Utah
Alaa Elgibali, University of Maryland
Manfred Woidich, University of Amsterdam
Andrzej Zaborski
VOLUME FOUR (Q – Y)

Q
Qàf (Lutz Edzard) ......................................................................................................................... 1–3
Qirà±àt (Mustafa Shah) .................................................................................................................. 4–11
Qiyàs (Miklós Maróth) ................................................................................................................. 11–14
Quantifi er (Peter Hallman) ............................................................................................................ 14–20
Qur±àn (Muhammad Abdel Haleem) ............................................................................................. 21–31

R
Rajaz (Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila) .................................................................................................... 32–37
Reanalysis (Mohssen Esseesy) ....................................................................................................... 37–43
Reciprocals (Joost Kremers) .......................................................................................................... 43–45
Redundancy (Ali Farghaly) ............................................................................................................ 45–50
Reduplication (Dina El Zarka) ...................................................................................................... 50–53
Refl exives (Joost Kremers) ............................................................................................................. 53–57
Register (Reem Bassiouney) ........................................................................................................... 57–60
Relative Clause (Mustafa Mughazy) ............................................................................................. 60–70
Relative Pronoun (Arabic Dialects) (Ángeles Vicente) ................................................................... 70–72
Religion and Language (Stefan Reichmuth) ................................................................................... 72–80
Resumption (Joseph Aoun) ........................................................................................................... 80–85
Rhyme (Soheir G. Mahfouz) ......................................................................................................... 86–92
Root (Petr Zemánek) ..................................................................................................................... 93–98
Ruq≠a (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 98–100

S
Sabab (Michael G. Carter) ............................................................................................................ 101–102
Saj≠ (Gert Borg) ............................................................................................................................. 103–106
Ían≠ànì Arabic (Janet Watson) ....................................................................................................... 106–115
Sandhi (Robert D. Hoberman) ...................................................................................................... 115–118
Íarf (Joyce Åkesson) ...................................................................................................................... 118–122
Saudi Arabia (Bruce Ingham) ........................................................................................................ 123–130
Script and Art (Adam Gacek) ........................................................................................................ 130–138
Second Language Acquisition (Mohammad T. Alhawary) ............................................................ 138–146
Second Language Teaching (Helle Lykke Nielsen) ........................................................................ 146–156
Secret Languages (Abderrahim Youssi) ......................................................................................... 156–160
Semantic Bleaching (Mohssen Esseesy) .......................................................................................... 160–164
Semantic Extension (Mohssen Esseesy) ......................................................................................... 164–169
Semitic Languages (Rainer Voigt) ................................................................................................. 170–179
Senegal (Fiona McLaughlin) .......................................................................................................... 179–185
Sentence (Moha Ennaji) ................................................................................................................ 185–191
Sentence Coordination (Heidi Lorimor) ........................................................................................ 191–195
Serial Verbs (Kees Versteegh) ........................................................................................................ 195–199
Ši≠r (Kamal Abu Deeb) .................................................................................................................. 199–214
Sicily (Alex Metcalfe) .................................................................................................................... 215–219
Íifa (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 219–222
Sign Languages (Bernadet Hendriks and Ulrike Zeshan) ............................................................... 222–235
Íila (Kees Versteegh) ..................................................................................................................... 235–237
Sinai Arabic (Rudolf de Jong) ....................................................................................................... 237–251
Slang (John Eisele) ......................................................................................................................... 251–259
Slavonic Languages (Václav Blažek) .............................................................................................. 259–267
Slips of the Tongue (Sabah M.Z. Safi ) ........................................................................................... 267–272
Somali (Andrzej Zaborski) ............................................................................................................ 272–275
Somalia (Mohamed Haji Mukhtar) ............................................................................................... 275–278
Songhay (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................. 279–282
Sound Symbolism (Kees Versteegh) ............................................................................................... 282–290
South Africa (Iris Hoedemaekers and Kees Versteegh) .................................................................. 290–295
South Arabian Loanwords (Martin R. Zammitt) ......................................................................... 295–297
South Arabian, Modern (Antoine Lonnet) .................................................................................... 297–300
South Semitic Languages (Anna Gr. Belova) ................................................................................. 300–315
Specifi city (Frederick M. Hoyt) ..................................................................................................... 315–320
Speech Accommodation (Sonia Shiri) ............................................................................................ 320–328
Speech Acts (Daniela Rodica Firanescu) ........................................................................................ 328–334
Speech Errors (Stefan A. Frisch) .................................................................................................... 334–338
Stem (Adamantios I. Gafos) .......................................................................................................... 338–344
Stress (René Kager) ....................................................................................................................... 344–353
Subject (Amira Agameya) .............................................................................................................. 354–359
Subordination (Mark S. LeTourneau) ........................................................................................... 360–367
Substrate (Wouter Kusters) ........................................................................................................... 367–375
Sudan (Al-Amin Abu-Manga) ....................................................................................................... 375–381
Swahili (Sergio Baldi) .................................................................................................................... 381–387
Syllable Structure (Maher Jesry) .................................................................................................... 387–389
Syncope (David Teeple) ................................................................................................................. 389–391
Syntax (Elabbas Benmamoun) ....................................................................................................... 391–402
Syria (Peter Behnstedt) .................................................................................................................. 402–409

T
Ta≠addin (Zeinab Taha) ................................................................................................................ 410–416
Taboo (Avihai Shivtiel) ................................................................................................................. 416–421
Tafxìm (Muhammad Hasan Bakalla) ............................................................................................ 421–424
Tajik (John R. Perry) ..................................................................................................................... 424–425
Tajwìd (Kristina Nelson) ............................................................................................................... 425–428
Ta≠lìq (Valeriy Rybalkin) ............................................................................................................... 428–430
Taltala (Jacques Grand’Henry) ...................................................................................................... 430–431
Tamakkun (Janusz Danecki) ......................................................................................................... 431–433
Tamil (Torsten Tschacher) ............................................................................................................ 433–436
Tamyìz (Ramzi Baalbaki) .............................................................................................................. 436–437
Tanàzu≠ (Wafaa Batran Wahba) .................................................................................................... 437–442
Tanwìn (Georgine Ayoub) ............................................................................................................. 442–446
Taqdìr (Kees Versteegh) ................................................................................................................ 446–449
Tatar (Suzanne Wertheim) ............................................................................................................ 450–451
Telugu (V. Swarajya Lakshmi) ...................................................................................................... 452–454
Tense (Uri Horesh) ........................................................................................................................ 454–458
Terminology (Xavier Lelubre and Joseph Dichy) .......................................................................... 458–466
Terms of Address (Dilworth B. Parkinson) ................................................................................... 466–471
Textlinguistics (Said Faiq) ............................................................................................................. 471–476
Thai (Anthony Diller and Wilaiwan Khanittanan) ........................................................................ 476–477
Thamudic (Ernst Axel Knauf) ....................................................................................................... 477–483
Theme/Rheme (Nadia Anghelescu) ................................................................................................ 484–487
Theta Roles (Mark S. LeTourneau) ............................................................................................... 487–494
Topic and Comment (James Dickins) ............................................................................................ 494–501
Topicalization (Sven-Olov Dahlgren) ............................................................................................ 501–508
lemma list – volume four 11
Toponyms (Stefan Wild) ............................................................................................................... 508–515
Transcription (Philipp Reichmuth) ................................................................................................ 515–520
Transformational Grammar (Ferid Chekili) .................................................................................. 520–528
Transitivity (James Dickins and Janet C.E. Watson) ..................................................................... 528–535
Transitivity: Object (Usama Soltan) .............................................................................................. 535–542
Translation Literature (Uwe Vagelpohl) ........................................................................................ 542–548
Tripoli Arabic (Christophe Pereira) ............................................................................................... 548–556
Truncation (Lutz Edzard) .............................................................................................................. 557–559
Âuluμ (Adam Gacek) ..................................................................................................................... 560–562
Tunis Arabic (Maik Gibson) ......................................................................................................... 563–571
Tunisia (Taïeb Baccouche) ............................................................................................................ 571–577
Turkey (Joan Smith Kocamahhul) ................................................................................................. 577–583
Turkish (Mark Kirchner) ............................................................................................................... 583–589
Turkish Loanwords (Stephan Procházka) ...................................................................................... 589–594

U
Urdu/Hindustani (Alain Désoulières) ............................................................................................. 595–603
Uyghur (Hans Nugteren) ............................................................................................................... 603–608
Uzbek (Hans Nugteren) ................................................................................................................. 608–612
Uzbekistan Arabic (Gerit Zimmermann) ....................................................................................... 612–623

V
Valency (Zouhair Maalej) ............................................................................................................. 624–627
Variation (Enam Al-Wer) ......................................................................................................
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