Current developments in Central Europe will have far-reaching consequences on the region’s forestry and related institutional arrangements, such as forest administration, extension services and forest research. Future prospects for the rural population living on income from forestry will considerably depend on how individuals and organisations react in view of these changes. It will be vitally important how forest owners and managers apply new knowledge in forestry and how organisations best deal with the emerging changes. Innovation and entrepreneurship are main driving forces for economic growth, competitiveness and employment creation, especially in rural areas. From 2001 to 2003, the EFI Regional Project Centre INNOFORCE conducted research on innovation and entrepreneurship in forestry in Central Europe, seeking answers to the following questions: What is the situation and perceived future outlook for forestry in the region? How important are innovation and entrepreneurship considered in the sector? How much innovation and entrepreneurship is actually taking place? What are supporting and impeding factors? The research report provides new knowledge on innovation behaviour of forest holdings and forest related innovation systems in Central Europe and on changes that are necessary to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship in the sector. Survey results are accompanied by lessons learned from more than 30 cases referring to innovations in forestry implemented in eight countries.
Ewald Rametsteiner. Director of EFI Project Centre INNOFORCE, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Gerhard Weiss, Researcher at EFI Project Centre INNOFORCE, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Klaus Kubeczko, Researcher, ARC Systems Research GmbH, Seibersdorf, Austria An independent and non-governmental research body, the EUROPEAN FOREST INSTITUTE - EFI - conducts problem-oriented and multi-disciplinary forest research at the European level in order to serve the needs of policy-making and decision-taking bodies in Europe.
Table of Contents Foreword Acknowledgements 1. Background and Objectives 2. Theory 2.1 Innovation systems 2.2 Entrepreneurs / entrepreneurship 3. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Monitors 3.1 European Innovation Scoreboard 3.2 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 4. Method 4.1 Overall approach 4.2 Forest holdings survey 4.3 Institutional system survey 4.4 Case study analysis 5. Frame Conditions for Innovations in Forestry in Central Europe 5.1 Forest resources and their utilization in Central Europe 5.2 Ownership structures 5.3 Educational background of forest managers/owners 5.4 Goals and strategies of forest management 5.5 Decision making structures and distribution of work 5.6 Product mix and contribution to income 6. Forest-owners and Forest Managers as Innovators 6.1 Innovation behaviour 6.2 Sources of impulse and information for innovation 6.3 Fostering factors for innovation 6.4 Impeding factors to innovation 6.5 Suggestions for improvements in innovation support 7. Forest owners and forest managers as entrepreneurs: start-ups in forestry 7.1 Entrepreneurship activities and behaviour 7.2 Support, fostering and impeding factors for start-ups 8. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Future Expectations 8.1 Entrepreneurial orientation of forest owners and forest managers 9. Institutional System of Innovation 9.1 Key actors in sectoral innovation systems and their views 9.2 Market expectations of institutional system actors 10. Innovation Systems and Processes: Lessons from Selected Cases 10.1 Wood products: Looking beyond the forest 10.2 Non-wood products: Marketing traditional products 10.3 Nature conservation services: From regulation to contracts 10.4 Recreational services: Accommodation and forest education 10.5 New technologies: Further mechanisation of forest work 10.6 The organisational challenge: Horizontal and vertical co-operation 10.7 Comparative analysis 10.8 Entrepreneurship in forestry 10.9 The role of sectoral and regional innovation systems in forestry innovations 11. Conclusions and Recommendations 11.1 Note the frame conditions for innovation 11.2 The current situation: Shortcomings and surprising strengths 11.3 Do institutional actors understand the needs of forest owners and managers? 11.4 How well are the three innovation system functions fulfilled? 11.5 Summary of recommendations Abbreviations References
Researchers working in the field of innovation and forestry, students, policy and decision-makers, forest owners and managers working in academia, research, forestry, forest-based industries, forest administration, and extension services.