Nomads, Migrants and Cotton in the Eastern Mediterranean

The Making of the Adana-Mersin Region, 1850-1908

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CONTENTS

List of Tables ...................................................................................... ix
List of Maps and Illustrations ......................................................... xi
List of Abbreviations ......................................................................... xiii
Note on Weights, Measure and Currencies .................................. xv
Acknowledgements ............................................................................ xvii

Introduction ........................................................................................ 1
Between Local and Global: A Story of Ottoman Modernization? ........................... 1
Reform in Provincial History: Toward a New Context .......... 7
Ottoman Çukurova: Beyond the Province of Adana or the Cilician Territory .......... 10

PART I
THE LANDSCAPE, THE PEOPLE AND THE STATE
Chapter One Spatial and Temporal Dynamics: Nomads and Settlers .................... 19
The Landscape and the People: An Historical Geography .... 21
From Nomadic Life to Sedentarization: 18th and 19th Centuries ............................. 29
Chapter Two The State: Political and Legal Dynamics from the Egyptians to the Ottoman Reforms ......... 41
Egyptian Penetration and New Beginnings, 1832–1840 ......... 41
Ibrahim Pasha in Çukurova .................................................... 42
Laborers, Irrigation, Crops: New Measures ......................... 46
Administering Balance: Urban and Rural Çukurova ......... 49
Achilles’ Heel: What Egyptians Did Not Do ....................... 51
The Aftermath of Egyptian Rule ............................................ 53
Ottoman Involvement: New Frameworks, 1839–1880 ........... 55
Tanzimat and Provincial Reform in Çukurova ....................... 57
Provincial Networks: The Later Additions ........................... 59
Local Government: Çukurova Configured and Configuring Çukurova ......... 61
Forced Settlement ..................................................................... 65
Settlement of Immigrants in the 1870s ................................. 73

PART II
CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY
Chapter Three Migration and Family Networks: Enterprising a Port-City .............. 85
Spatial Beginnings: The Port and the Town ............................. 88
Surrounding Mersin: Roads, the Railroad and Caravans ... 94
Migrants and Merchants: The Human Network ..................... 106
Chapter Four A New Region: Landholders and Industrialists .................................. 135
Producing Cotton: Setbacks and Prospects .............................. 138
Extension of Cultivation: Cotton, “everybody’s concern” 138
Registering Land and Importing Machinery: Wealth in Çukurova from the 1870s to the 1890s ......... 160
Mechanization ........................................................................... 168
Estate Formation: The Ceyhan Sub-region .......................... 176
Industrial Production ................................................................... 182
Conclusion .......................................................................................... 189

By Way of an Epilogue: World War I and After ..................... 198
Bibliography ........................................................................................ 205
Index .................................................................................................... 219