West over Sea

Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300


This volume is a collection of 30 papers on the broad subject of the Scandinavian expansion westwards to Britain, Ireland and the North Atlantic, with a particular emphasis on settlement. The volume has been prepared in tribute to the work of Barbara E. Crawford on this subject, and to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the publication of her seminal book, Scandinavian Scotland. Reflecting Dr Crawford's interests, the papers cover a range of disciplines, and are arranged into four main sections: History and Cultural Contacts; The Church and the Cult of Saints; Archaeology, Material Culture and Settlement; Place-Names and Language. The combination provides a variety of new perspectives both on the Viking expansion and on Scandinavia's continued contacts across the North Sea in the post-Viking period.
Contributors include: Lesley Abrams, Haki Antonsson, Beverley Ballin Smith, James Barrett, Paul Bibire, Nicholas Brooks, Dauvit Broun, Margaret Cormac, Neil Curtis, Clare Downham, Gillian Fellows-Jensen, Ian Fisher, Katherine Forsyth, Peder Gammeltoft, Sarah Jane Gibbon, Mark Hall, Hans Emil Liden, Christopher Lowe, Joanne McKenzie, Christopher Morris, Elizabeth Okasha, Elizabeth Ridel, Liv Schei, Jón Viðar Sigurðsson, Brian Smith, Steffen Stumann Hansen, Frans Arne Stylegård, Simon Taylor, William Thomson, Gareth Williams, Doreen Waugh and Alex Woolf.

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Beverley Ballin Smith, is an Archaeologist at the University of Glasgow whose research interests are the prehistoric and early medieval archaeology of the Northern Isles of Scotland. She was co-author with Barbara Crawford of The Biggings, Papa Stour Shetland (Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 1999).
Simon Taylor, Ph.D., (1995), is a toponymist and researcher on the AHRC-funded project ‘Gaelic in medieval Scotland: the evidence of names’, at the Department of Celtic, University of Glasgow. He has published widely on Scottish place-names and saints’ cults, including Place-Names of Fife volume 1 (of 4 volumes, Shaun Tyas, 2006).
Gareth Williams, Ph.D. (1997), is a curator at the British Museum. He has published on Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Scottish topics, and has co-edited three other books on aspects of the Viking Age, including two in Brill's The Northern World series.

Foreword .. ix
Nicholas Brooks

Preface .. xiii
List of Contributors .. xv
List of Illustrations .. xvii
List of Tables .. xxi
County Abbreviations .. xxiii

Barbara E. Crawford—A Bibliography .. xxv

On Reading the Icelandic Sagas: Approaches to Old Icelandic Texts .. 3
Paul Bibire
Becoming Scottish in the thirteenth century: the evidence of the Chronicle of Melrose .. 19
Dauvit Broun
Living on the Edge: Scandinavian Dublin in the Twelfth Century .. 33
Clare Downham
Image and Imagination: The Inchmarnock ‘Hostage Stone’ .. 53
Christopher Lowe
Anglo-Saxon Inscriptions found outside the British Isles .. 69
Elisabeth Okasha
From Scotland to Normandy: The Celtic Sea Route of the Vikings .. 81
Élisabeth Ridel
The appearance and personal abilities of goðar, jarlar, and konungar: Iceland, Orkney and Norway .. 95
Jón Viðar Sigurðsson
‘Lords of Norroway’ The Shetland estate of Herdis Thorvaldsdatter .. 111
Frans-Arne Stylegar and Liv Kjørsvik Schei
BALLIN_ ‘These people were high-born and thought well of themselves’: The family of Moddan of Dale .. 129
Gareth Williams
The Wood Beyond the World: Jämtland and the Norwegian Kings .. 153
Alex Woolf

Conversion and the Church in the Hebrides in the Viking Age: “A Very Difficult Thing Indeed” .. 169
Lesley Abrams
A Norwegian in Durham: An Anatomy of a Miracle in Reginald of Durham’s Libellus de admirandis beati Cuthberti .. 195
Haki Antonsson, with contributions by Sally Crumplin and Aidan Conti
Irish and Armenian Ecclesiastics in Medieval Iceland .. 227
Margaret Cormack
Medieval Parish Formation in Orkney .. 235
Sarah Jane Gibbon
The Church of St. Clement in Oslo .. 251
Hans-Emil Lidén
The Shetland Chapel-sites Project 1999–2000 .. 265
Christopher D. Morris, with Kevin J. Brady and Paul G. Johnson

Norwick: Shetland’s fi rst Viking settlement? .. 287
Beverley Ballin Smith
The Pirate Fishermen: The Political Economy of a Medieval Maritime Society .. 299
James H. Barrett
‘Like stray words or letters’ The development and workings of the Treasure Trove system .. 341
Neil G. W. Curtis
Early Medieval Sculpture from the Faroes: an illustrated catalogue .. 363
Ian Fisher and Ian G. Scott
Liminality and Loss: The Material Culture of St Serf ’s Priory, Loch Leven, Kinross-shire, Scotland .. 379
Mark A. Hall
Manuring practices in Scotland: deep anthropogenic soils and the historical record .. 401
Jo McKenzie
Stobister, Sinnabist and Starrapund: three wilderness settlements in Shetland .. 419
Brian Smith
Governor on Antiquarian Mission: Christian Pløyen—a Faroese Link between Copenhagen and Shetland .. 431
Steffen Stummann Hansen

The Scandinavian element gata outside the urbanised settlements of the Danelaw .. 445
Gillian Fellows-Jensen
An ogham-inscribed plaque from Bornais, South Uist .. 461
Katherine Forsyth
Scandinavian Naming-Systems in the Hebrides—A Way of Understanding how the Scandinavians were in Contact with Gaels and Picts? .. 479
Peder Gammeltoft
The Rock of the Irishmen: an early place-name tale from Fife and Kinross .. 497
Simon Taylor
The Orkney Papar-names .. 515
William P. L. Thomson
Placing Papa Stour in Context .. 539
Doreen Waugh

General Index .. 555
All those interested in Viking studies, medieval history, Scottish history, archaeology, place-name studies, and church history and hagiography.
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