Much has been written about democratizing Afghanistan and Iraq, yet a clear-cut, theoretically-enriching, and empirically thick comparative analysis remains overdue for societies as divided as these two. To partly fill in the vacuum, this book utilizes various theories and stages of international negotiations(which catalyzed democratization in both cases) in interpreting both cases, while also distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous democratization forces. How electoral democracy came about in both cases is traced from the negotiating table through at least 4 stages and 6 chapters. The study finds democratization being more stable when left on its own momentum (as in Afghanistan) than when conflict-driven (as in Iraq). Though full-fledged democracy does not appear inevitable in either case, the study's insightful exploration of its interface in Islamic communities and as a Bush Doctrine component alerts us to fasten our seat belts before elections beckon again.
Imtiaz Hussain is Professor of International Relations in Mexico City’s Universidad Iberoamericana, with recent publications addressing regional integration, democratization, and homeland security. A recipient of several teaching and research awards, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, and is from Bangladesh.
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List of Abbreviations
1. Afghanistan & Iraq, Democracy & the United States: Between Rocks and Hard Places
Introduction: Of Puzzles, Problems, & Predicaments
Nature of the Subject
Signifi cance of Subject
2. Hyphenating Democracy: Germany, Japan, & the Confl ict Thesis
Democratizing the Defeated: German and Japanese
Experiences in Comparative Light
4. Blindfolding Democracy: Blueprinting Ballots From
Building a Blueprint
Actors and Actions
From Confl ict to Cooperation
Sine qua non democracy: Afghan-Iraq Symmetries &
C.P.A. as Oddball
A Tale of Two Negotiating Tables
Ad Hoc Democracy: Troubled Waters Too Deep,
Bridges Too Few
Afghanistan-Iraq Comparisons & Contrasts
7. Constitutional Democracy: Afghanistan’s Paper Tiger &
Iraq’s Pigeon Clay
Profi ling Constitution-making
Future Prospects: Towards Functional Statehood
8. Electoral Democracy: Still the Road Less Traveled By
Elections and Governmental Performances
Post-Election Issues and Contentions
Contexts and Verdicts
9. Conclusions: Damoclean Democracy?
A Triple-headed Monstrosity & Mine-fi lled Exits
Substantive Similarities and Differences
The volume is most pertinent for scholars of democracy, Middle East & Persian Gulf specialists, graduate students focusing on democracy/Middle East/Persian Gulf, policy-makers, and the informed public.