Military institutions have everywhere and always shaped the course of history, but women’s near universal participation in them has largely gone unnoticed. This volume addresses the changing relationships between women and armed forces from antiquity to the present. The eight chapters in Part I present broad, scholarly reviews of the existing literature to provide a clear understanding of where we stand. An extended picture essay documents visually women’s military work since the sixteenth century. The book’s second part comprises eight exemplary articles, more narrowly focused than the survey articles but illustrating some of their major themes. Military history will benefit from acknowledging women’s participation, as will women’s history from recognizing military institutions as major factors in molding women’s lives.
Contributors include Jorit Wintjes, Mary Elizabeth Ailes, John A. Lynn, Barton C. Hacker, Kimberly Jensen, Margaret Vining, D’Ann M. Campbell, Carol B. Stevens, Jan Noel, Elizabeth Prelinger, Donna Alvah, Karen Hagemann, Yehudit Kol-Inbar, Dorotea Gucciardo and Megan Howatt, and Judith Hicks Stiehm.
Barton C. Hacker, Ph.D. (University of Chicago, 1968), is senior curator of armed forces history in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. In addition to women's military history, he has published widely on the history of military technology and of nonwestern military institutions.
Margaret Vining, MA. (The George Washington University, 1983), is curator of armed forces history in the Smithsonian Institution. She has published numerous articles on women's military history and on the material culture of the armed forces of the United States.
List of Illustrations . . ix
List of Contributors . . xiii
Introduction // Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining . 1
PART I: WOMEN AND MILITARY INSTITUTIONS FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT: SURVEY ARTICLES
1. “Keep the Women out of the Camp!": Women and Military Institutions
in the Classical World // Jorit Wintjes . . 17
2. Camp Followers, Sutlers, and Soldiers’ Wives: Women in Early
Modern Armies (c. 1450–c. 1650) // Mary Elizabeth Ailes . . 61
3. Essential Women, Necessary Wives, and Exemplary Soldiers:
The Military Reality and Cultural Representation of Women’s
Military Participation (1600–1815) // John A. Lynn II . . 93
4. Reformers, Nurses, and Ladies in Uniform: The Changing Status
of Military Women (c. 1815–c. 1914) // Barton C. Hacker . . 137
5. Volunteers, Auxiliaries, and Women’s Mobilization: The First
World War and Beyond (1914–1939) // Kimberly Jensen . . 189
6. Women Join the Armed Forces: The Transformation of Women’s
Military Work in World War II and After (1939–1947) // Margaret Vining . . 233
7. Almost Integrated? American Servicewomen and Their International
Sisters Since World War II // D’Ann Campbell . . 291
8. Revolutionaries, Regulars, and Rebels: Women and Non-Western
Armies since World War II // Barton C. Hacker . . 331
PART II: PICTURES OF WOMEN’S MILITARY WORK SINCE THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Introduction to Part II // Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining . 381
Illustrations . . Following page 384
PART III: RESEARCH ESSAYS IN WOMEN’S MILITARY HISTORY
9. Women and War in Early Modern Russia (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries) // Carol B. Stevens . . 387
10. Sisters in Arms: Quebec Convents at the Crossroads of Empire // Jan Noel . . 409
11. U.S. Military Wives in the Philippines, from the Philippine War to World War II // Donna Alvah . . 431
12. “The Spirit of Woman-Power”: Representation of Women in World War I Posters // Elizabeth Prelinger with Barton C. Hacker . 453
13. “German Women Help to Win!” Women and the German Military in the Age of World Wars // Karen Hagemann . . 485
14. “Not Even For Three Lines in History”: Jewish Women Underground Members and Partisans during the Holocaust // Yehudit Kol-Inbar . . 513
15. Sniper Girls and Fearless Heroines: Wartime Representations of Foreign Women in English-Canadian Press, 1941–1943 // Dorotea Gucciardo and Megan Howatt . 547
16. Enlisted Women in the U.S. Army 1948–2008: A View from the Market Place // Judith Hicks Stiehm . . 569
Index . . 601
All those interested in women's history and military history.