Liberalism, Constitutional Nationalism, and Minorities  

The Making of Romanian Citizenship, c. 1750–1918


Winner of the 2019 CEU Award for Outstanding Research

This book documents the making of Romanian citizenship from 1750 to 1918 as a series of acts of national self-determination by the Romanians, as well as the emancipation of subordinated gender, social, and ethno-religious groups. It focuses on the progression of a sum of transnational “questions” that were at the heart of North-Atlantic, European, and local politics during the long nineteenth century, concerning the status of peasants, women, Greeks, Jews, Roma, Armenians, Muslims, and Dobrudjans. The analysis emphasizes the fusion between nationalism and liberalism, and the emancipatory impact national-liberalism had on the transition from the Old Regime to the modern order of the nation-state. While emphasizing liberalism's many achievements, the study critically scrutinizes the liberal doctrine of legal-political “capacity” and the dark side of nationalism, marked by tendencies toward exclusion. It highlights the challenges nascent liberal democracies face in the process of consolidation and the enduring appeal of illiberalism in periods of upheaval, represented mainly by nativism. The book's innovative interdisciplinary approach to citizenship in the Ottoman and post-Ottoman Balkans and the richness of the sources employed, appeal to a diverse readership.

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Constantin Iordachi teaches at the Central European University, Budapest. He has published widely on citizenship, nationalism and fascism. His most recent project is Martyrdom to Purification: The Fascist Faith of the Legion `Archangel Michael' in Romania, 1927-1941 (London: Routledge, forthcoming 2019).
“a sophisticated exploration of the creation of Romania during the long nineteenth century, examined from the perspective of the development and evolution of citizenship […] the book is impeccably edited and handsomely produced.”

Paul Michelson, in Slavic Review (2020) "Iordachi’s book on the practice of citizenship is an important work that researchers concerned with legislation as a means of social regulation cannot afford to ignore. It also provides a solid starting point for further analysis of state-building processes in the modern period."

Mara Mărginean, George Barițiu Institute of History, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in Journal of Romanian Studies issue 3.1 (2021), pp 121-3.
List of Figures

Introduction: Liberal Citizenship: an Interdisciplinary Approach

Part 1 From the Old Regime to the Nation-State: Toward a Unified Moldo-Wallachian Citizenship, c. 1750–1858

1 The Greek “Proto-Question” and the Birth of Modern Citizenship

2 “Restoring” the Regime of Nobility Estates: Citizenship under the Organic Regulations, 1821–1858

3 The Slavery Question: Abolitionism and the Emancipation of Roma, 1831–1856

4 The Romanian Question: the Great Powers, “European Public Law” and the Union of the Principalities, 1856–1858

Part 2 Peasants into Romanians: the Construction of Romanian National Citizenship, 1859–1866

5 Emulating the Second French Empire: the State-National Citizenship Model, 1859–1866

6 Shifting to an Ethno-National Citizenship Model: the Regime of Constitutional Nationalism

Part 3 Constitutional Nationalism and Minorities, 1866–1918

7 The Jewish Question: the Exclusion of Jews from Citizenship

8 The Internationalization of the Jewish Question: Actors and Networks, 1866–1879

9 Duties without Rights: Jews under Constitutional Nationalism, 1879–1913

10 The Woman Question: Gender, Property, and Citizenship

11 The Dobrudjan Question: Constitutional Nationalism and the Assimilation of a Border Region, 1878–1914

12 Liberalism Renewed: War, Civil Society, and Emancipation, 1913–1918

13 The Language of Citizenship: Imperial Legacies, Legal-Political Concepts, and Historical Time

All interested in the history of citizenship in Ottoman and post-Ottoman Balkans, and in citizenship studies, legal history, Romani studies, Jewish studies, gender studies, ethno-politics and minority rights, and war and social change. Keywords: emancipation, minority rights, women question, Jewish question, slavery of Roma, abolitionism, civil society, nativism, Ottoman Empire, Romania, Balkans, Dobrudja, Moldavia, Wallachia, and conceptual history.
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