Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies

The Social World of Ayutthaya, 1640-1720


This book provides an original study of the sizeable Portuguese community in Ayutthaya, the chief river-state in Siam, during a period of apparent decline (1640-1720). Portuguese populations were displaced from their chief settlements like Melaka and Makassar, and attracted to the river-states of mainland South-East Asia by a protective model of kingship, hopes of international trade and the opportunity to harvest souls. A variety of sources will be used to shed light on the fortunes and make-up of this displaced, mixed-race 'tribe', which was largely independent of the matrices of Portuguese colonial power, and fared poorly alongside other foreign communities in this remarkably open, dynamic environment. Circumstances changed for the better after the National Revolution of 1688, when Portuguese started to fill many of the jobs at court and in commerce previously occupied by Frenchmen and northern Europeans.

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Preliminary Material
Pages: i–xiv
Pages: 407–439
Pages: 441–456
Stefan Halikowski Smith, Ph.D. (2001) in History and Civilisation, European University Institute, is Lecturer in History at Swansea University. His specialisation is Portuguese overseas expansion in the early modern period, both publishing widely and lecturing on this topic at Brown University, Rhode Island. His most recent edited collection entitled Portugal Índico: Essays on the history of the Portuguese presence in South Asia came out as a Special Issue of Itinerario in 2007.
"[...] Halikowski-Smith's work should be highly recommended to students and speialists who wish to understand the continued presence of the Portuguese in Southeast Asia and their creolization process throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries."
Sim H. Teddy, Anais de História de Além-Mar, No. 12, 2011, 387-388 pp.

"Stefan Halikowski Smith intends to make a further contribution by presenting a theoretical argument about the nature of the Portuguese presence in Southeast Asia, and an analysis of the Portuguese community in Ayutthaya. This is is an ambitious project with important ramifications for the
study of the Portuguese in Asia."
- Liam Matthew Brockey (Michigan State University), Luso-Brazilian Review, 50:2, pp. 146 - 148

"[...] [T]he contribution of Halikowsky Smith for the study of creolization in the Indian Ocean, and in particular of the Portuguese presence in Ayutthaya, is undoubtedly important, not only by the thorough study—and still little explored by Portuguese historiography—but by its own comparative approach, essential to the understanding of the complex population movements in the Indian ocean following the degradation of Portuguese India starting in the 1620s."
- Paulo Teodoro de Matos (Portuguese Catholic University), InterDISCIPLINARY Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies Vol. 2 (2013), pp. 145 - 149
Note on Spelling
List of Figures

1. Introduction: a world of creolization
2. ‘People on the move’: Seventeenth century population movements in the Portuguese Indies
3. The rise and fall of Portuguese Makassar
4. No obvious home: the flight of the Portuguese ‘tribe’ from Makassar in the 1660s
5. From contact to settlement in South-East Asia: a history of mercenaries and interlopers
6. ‘O campo português’: The Portuguese quarter in Ayutthaya in the wake of the Makassarese diaspora
7. The development of the presence of the Catholic church in Ayutthaya
8. ‘Those (…) who occupy the lowest category here’. The social relegation, but survival, of the Portuguese ‘tribe’
9. ‘Living great after the fashion of the country’: Comparisons with Portuguese in neighboring kingdoms
10. Unpublished depictions of Portuguese in Thai and Burmese temple murals
11. ‘All that the French Bishops wish is to see us leave’: Religious disputes in South-East Asia between Portuguese Jesuits and French Missionaires Étrangères de Paris
12. Conclusion

Documentary annexes
All those interested in the history of European empires in the East, their settlement patterns and cultural transfer. This book is aimed specifically at specialists in Portuguese overseas and South-East Asian history, focusing on the period building up to the National Revolution in Siam of 1688.
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