The Politics of Trade

Egypt and Lower Nubia in the 4th Millennium BC


Until recently much of the discussion regarding the A-Group has emphasised the influence of Egypt in the region. Egyptian material found in A-Group contexts has pointed to some type of exchange system between the two regions but the lack of A-Group manufactured objects in Egyptian contexts has led to the argument that the relationship was somewhat one-sided. Yet was it and how different were Egyptians and Lower Nubians during the 4th millennium BC?

Re-examining the material evidence from three major archaeological salvage campaigns, and using anthropological and economic theories this book takes a fresh look at exchange patterns between Egypt and Lower Nubia. The changes and developments in these relationships potentially impacted the development towards the Egyptian state and the fate of the A-Group.
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Biographical Note

Jane Roy, Ph.D. (2009) in Egyptology, Macquarie University, is currently a lecturer at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

Table of contents

Chapter 1: Nubia and Egypt
Chapter 2: Egypt in Nubia
Chapter 3: Nubia in Egypt
Chapter 4: Inscriptional, Pictorial, and Glyptic Evidence
Chapter 5: Commodities Exchanged
Chapter 6: The Nature of the Beast


All those interested in the history and archaeology of Pre-Early Dynastic Egypt and the A-Group of Lower Nubia and those interested in the nature of exchange contacts in preliterate societies.


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