Complex Predicates in Q’anjob’al (Maya)

Resultative, End-state, Benefactive, Causative, Monitoring, and Directional


In this book, Eladio Mateo Toledo presents a description and analysis of resultatives, end-states, monitoring constructions, causatives, and directional constructions in the Mayan language Q’anjob’al spoken in the northwest of Guatemala. Although causatives (analyzed as clause union) and directionals (analyzed as serial verbs) have long been studied in Mayan languages, no Mayan language has been shown to have an extensive list of complex predicates. This volume contains the first coherent account of a series of complex predicates in a Mayan language. The book shows that complex predicates in Q’anjob’al use one of two predicative frames, a verb+verb frame or a nonverbal+verb frame, and that only five general parameters explain their formal and semantic properties.

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List of Tables and Figures
Glosses, Abbreviations, and Notations

1 The Book and the Language
 1.1 Complex Predicate Constructions
 1.2 Definitions and Criteria in the Analysis of Complex Predicates
 1.3 Past Work on Mayan Complex Predicates
 1.4 An Overview of Complex Predicates in Q’anjob’al and Other Mayan Languages
 1.5 Data and Methodology
 1.6 Background on the Language
 1.7 Organization of the Book

2 Morphosyntax of Simple and Complex Predicates
 2.1 The Predicate Nucleus
 2.2 Inflectional Morphology of Simple Predicates
 2.3 Inflectional Morphology of Complex Predicates
 2.4 Multiply Complex Predicates
 2.5 Complex Predicates versus Compound Verbs

3 The Monoclausal Syntax of Complex Predicate Constructions
 3.1 Basic Assumptions and Tests
 3.2 Simple Clause
 3.3 Clause Types in Q’anjob’al
 3.4 Finite Monoclausal Features of Complex Predicates
 3.5 The First Near-Twins: Intransitive V2 versus Uninflected Nonfinite Clause
 3.6 The Second Near-Twins: Transitive V2 versus Inflected Nonfinite Clause
 3.7 The Syntax of Other Complex Predicate Constructions
 3.8 Conclusions

4 The Argument Structure and Meaning of Complex Predicates
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 Argument Structure and Its Analysis
 4.3 The Meanings of Complex Predicates in Q’anjob’al
 4.4 The Argument Structure of Complex Predicates
 4.5 The Rule of Predicate Adjacency in Total Fusion
 4.6 Conclusions

5 Event Structure and Lexical Semantics in Complex Predicates
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 Assumptions about Event Structure and Its Reflexes in Q’anjob’al
 5.3 Event Structure and Lexical Restrictions in Resultative Complex Predicates
 5.4 Event Structure and Lexical Restrictions in Positional End-State Complex Predicates
 5.5 Event Structure and Lexical Restrictions in Causative Complex Predicates
 5.6 Event Structure and Lexical Restrictions in Monitoring Complex Predicates
 5.7 Event Structure and Lexical Semantics in the Benefactive Complex Predicate
 5.8 Conclusions

6 Conclusions about Complex Predicates and Extensions of their Analysis
 6.1 The Approach to Complex Predicates: Conclusions and Generalizations
 6.2 Avenues for Extending the Complex Predicate Approach to Other Constructions
 6.3 Avenues for the Diachrony of Complex Predicates

The book is of interest to Mayanists working on the morphosyntax and lexical-semantics of Mayan languages and Mesoamerican languages, linguists and graduate students working on complex predicates from a descriptive, theoretical or typological/comparative perspective.
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