During the early twentieth century in China, a number of key economic leaders converted to Christianity. Whilst strongly influenced by cultural heritage, powerful modernizing forces and tumultuous political changes, the new Christian identity inculcated by Protestant missionaries motivated these entrepreneurs to modify their business practices, improve their social environment and extend the influence of Christianity. Protestant and Catholic sojourners likewise made significant contributions into their adopted communities. With unprecedented economic growth in China today, a fascinating contemporary parallel can be seen, particularly through the influence of Pentecostal, charismatic and evangelical training. Previous research has explored the emergence of the urban Christian élite in modern China. However, this systematic study provides new understanding of how Christian identity motivates Chinese business Christians toward economic, social and religious contribution.
Denise A. Austin, Ph.D. (2004) in History, University of Queensland, is Academic Director, Queensland for Alphacrucis College (Australian Christian Churches). She has contributed to several works on Chinese and Australian Christian history, including "Religion and Spirituality" (IAP, 2010).
"Austin is in firm command of the primary and secondary sources, showing clearly how Christian conversion is an undeniable factor, among others, contributing to the development of business Christians in modern China. [...] Those interested in the interface of Christianity with business and entrepreneurship studies especially in the Asian and Australasian contexts will find a wealth of historical and comparative data in this well-written book."
Amos Yong in Religious Studies Review
Foreword ... ix
Preface ... xi
Acknowledgements ... xiii
List of Illustrations ... xv
List of Abbreviations ... xix
Note on Romanisation ... xxi
Introduction ... 1
1. The Rise of the Chinese Christian Merchant Class ... 11
2. The Making of Chinese Business Christians ... 33
3. Christian Identity and Social Contribution ... 53
4. Doing Business as a Christian in Early Twentieth Century China ... 71
5. Where Eastern Philanthropy and Western Charity Collide ... 107
6. Building the Indigenous Church in China ... 133
7. A Comparison with Chinese Business Catholics ... 161
8. Chinese Business Christians in Early Twentieth Century Australia ... 185
9. ‘Kingdom-Minded’ Contemporary Chinese Business Christians ... 213
Conclusion ... 239
Bibliography ... 245
Index ... 273
All those interested in the history of Christianity in China, business history, philanthropic and diaspora studies, Pentecostal/charismatic ideology and religious identity construction, as well as social theorists and theologians.