Manufacturing Middle Ages

Entangled History of Medievalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe


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Across the nineteenth century European history, philology, archaeology, art, and architecture turned from a common classical vocabulary and ideology to images of pasts and origins drawn primarily from the Middle Ages. The result was a paradox, as scholars and artists, schooled in the same pan-European vocabularies and methodologies nevertheless sought to discover through them unique and, frequently, oppositional national identities. These essays, edited by Patrick J. Geary and Gábor Klaniczay, focus on this all-European phenomenon with a special focus on Scandinavia and East-Central Europe, bearing witness to the inextricable links between cultural and scientific engagement, the search for national identity, and political agendas in the long nineteenth century that made the search for archaic origins an entangled history.

Contributors include: Walter Pohl, Ian Wood, Sverre Bagge, Maciej Janowski, Sir David Wilson, Anders Andrén, Ernő Marosi, Carmen Popescu, Ahmet Ersoy, Michael Werner, Joep Leerssen, R. Howard Bloch, Pavlína Rychterová, Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri, Stefan Detchev, Florin Curta, and Péter Langó.

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Patrick J. Geary is Professor of Medieval European History at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He has published numerous books and essays on medieval social and cultural history including The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe (Princeton, 2002).

Gábor Klaniczay is Professor of Medieval Studies at the Central European University, Budapest. He has published numerous books and essays on the historical anthropology of Christianity, including Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses: Dynastic Cults in Medieval Central Europe (Cambridge, 2002).
List of Figures


National Origin Narratives in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Walter Pohl
The Uses and Abuses of Barbarian Invasions in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Ian N. Wood
Oehlenschlaeger and Ibsen: National Revival in Drama and History in Denmark and Norway c. 1800-1860, Sverre Bagge
Romantic Historiography as a Sociology of Liberty: Joachim Lelewel and His Contemporaries, Maciej Janowski


The Roots of Medievalism in North-West Europe: National Romanticism, Architecture, Literature, David M. Wilson
Medieval and neo-medieval buildings in Scandinavia, Anders Andrén
Restoration as an Expression of Art History in Nineteenth-Century Hungary, Ernő Marosi
Digging out the Past to Build up the Future: Romanian Architecture in the Balkan Context 1859-1906, Carmen Popescu
Ottoman Gothic: Evocations of the Medieval Past in Late Ottoman Architecture, Ahmet Ersoy
Medievalism and Modernity: Architectural Appropriations of the Middle Ages in Germany (1890-1920), Michael Werner


A Cross-Country Foxhunt: Claiming Reynard for the National Literatures of Nineteenth-Century Europe, Joep T. Leerssen
Restoration from Notre-Dame de Paris to Gaston Paris, R. Howard Bloch
The Czech Linguistic Turn: Origins of Modern Czech Philology 1780-1880, Pavlína Rychterová


‘Medieval’ Identities in Italy: National, Regional, Local, Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri
Between Slavs and Old Bulgars: ‘Ancestors’, ‘Race’ and Identity in Late Nineteenth-Century Bulgaria, Stefan Detchev
With Brotherly Love: The Czech Beginnings of Medieval Archaeology in Bulgaria and Ukraine, Florin Curta
The Study of the Archaeological Finds of the Tenth-Century Carpathian Basin as National Archaeology: Early Nineteenth-Century Views, Péter Langó

Notes on Contributors
These essays are intended both for modern historians, medievalists, and scholars of nationalism as well as for a wider public interested in understanding the origins of modern nationalist ideology.
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