Civic Patronage in the Roman Empire


The Roman Empire may be properly described as a consortium of cities (and not as set of proto national states). From the late Republic and into the Principate, the Roman elite managed the empire through insititutional and personal ties to the communities of the Empire. Especially in the Latin West the emperors encouraged the adoption of the Latin language and urban amenities, and were generous in the award of citizenship. This process, and ‘Romanization’ is a reasonable label, was facilitated by civic patronage. The literary evidence provides a basis for understanding this transformation from subject to citizen and for constructing a higher allegiance to the idea of Rome. We gain a more complete understanding of the process by considering the legal and monumental/epigraphical evidence that guided and encouraged such benefaction and exchange. This book uses all three forms of evidence to provide a deeper understanding of how patrocinium publicum served as a formal vehicle for securing the goodwill of the citizens and subjects of Rome.

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John Nicols, Ph.D. (1973), University of California, Los Angeles, is emeritus professor of History and of Classics at the University of Oregon, and Alexander von Humboldt Fellow. He has published many articles on civic patronage and hospitium in the Roman Empire, some of which have appeared in the Brill Series Impact of Empire.
"[T]his is an erudite study that will need to be taken into consideration by anyone interested in patrocinium publicum in the narrow sense of the term." Hendrik Dey, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2014.05.15.
List of Tables and Graphs
Some Representative Texts

1. Introduction
1.1. Varieties of Patronage
1.2. On the Theory and Practice of Patronage in Modern Scholarship
1.3. On the Nature of Exchange
1.4. Concerning Evidence and Methods
1.5. Redefining Civic Patronage and Patrocinium Publicum
1.6. On Cause and Effect / Mutual Reinforcement
1.7. Central Issues and Questions
1.8. On the Organization of this Monograph

2. Civic Patronage in the Late Republic
2.1. Patrocinium and Clientela in Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum
2.2. Caesar, Pompeius and the Patronage of Massilia
2.3. The Spanish Clientelae of Pompeius and Caesar
2.4. Italian Clientelae in the Late Republic
2.5. Patronage of the Greek Cities of the East
2.6. Conclusion

3. Augustus and Civic Patronage
3.1. The Theory and Practice of Civic Patronage in the Age of Augustus
3.2. The Princeps and the Imperial Family
3.3. Aemulatio Principis: Civic Patronage and the Urban Policy of Augustus
3.4. Patronage and Urban Policy
3.5. Patronage in the Principate of Augustus: The Question of Status
3.6. The Fate of the Civic Clientelae of the Republican Nobility
3.7. Mutual Obligations

4. Civic Patronage in the Principate
4.1. Civic Patronage in the Literary Evidence of the Principate
4.2. Pliny and His Client Communities
4.3. Fronto and Cirta
4.4. Epictetus and the Patron of Cnossos
4.5. Tacitus on the Limits of Civic Patronage
4.6. Conclusion

5. Civic Patronage in the Verrines
5.0. Introduction
5.1. TheWorking of Patronage in the Verrines
5.2. TheWorking of Hospitium
5.3. Cicero and the Sicilians
5.4. The Representation of Patrocinium and Hospitium
5.5. Conclusions

6. Civic Patronage in Roman Law
6.1. The Regulations of the Central Government
6.2. Other Regulations
6.3. The Effectiveness of the Legislation
6.4. Conclusions

7. Civic Patronage in the Epigraphical Record
7.0. Introduction
7.1. General Characteristics of the Data
7.2. Some Regional Variations
7.3. Observations on the Rank of the Patron and Status of the Client
7.4. Municipal Patrons of Other Ranks
7.5. Benefactions
7.6. Reflections on the Epigraphical Record

8. Patronage and the Patrons of Canusium: A Case Study
8.1. The Problem and the City
8.2. The Text and Its Characteristics
8.3. The Ranking of the Patrons of Canusium
8.4. The Needs and Expectations of the Client Community
8.5. Conclusions
1. The Revision of the Album
2. The Bruttii
3. How LongWas the Album Displayed?

9. Reflections on the Evolution of Civic Patronage

Select Bibliography
General Index
Index of Persons
All interested in Roman cities, in the management of the Roman Empire and especially in the process of Romanization and the development of Roman cities.
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