The Subversion of the Apocalypses in the Book of Jubilees


In spite of some scholars’ inclination to include the book of Jubilees as another witness to “Enochic Judaism,” the relationship of Jubilees to the apocalyptic writings and events surrounding the Maccabean revolt has never been adequately clarified. This book builds on scholarship on genre to establish a clear pattern among the ways Jubilees resembles and differs from other apocalypses. Jubilees matches the apocalypses of its day in overall structure and literary morphology. Jubilees also uses the literary genre to raise the issues typical of the apocalypses—including revelation, angels and demons, judgment, and eschatology—but rejects what the apocalypses typically say about those issues, subverting reader expectations with a corrected view. In addition to the main argument concerning Jubilees, this volume’s survey of what is fundamentally apocalyptic about apocalyptic literature advances the understanding of early Jewish apocalyptic literature and, in turn, of later apocalypses and comparable perspectives, including those of Paul and the Qumran sectarians.
Todd R. Hanneken is Assistant Professor of Theology at St. Mary’s University in San Antonio.

1. Introduction
1.1. Th e Problem
1.1.1. Overestimating the Similarity to the Apocalypses
1.1.2. Underestimating the Similarity to the Apocalypses
1.2. Th e Solution
1.2.1. Distinguish Layers of Abstraction: Literary Morphology, Typical Ideas, and Social Context
1.2.2. Defi ne the Genre Based on Literary Morphology
1.2.3. Other Layers Follow: Ideas, Social Movements, and Function
1.2.4. Jubilees Uses the Typical Literary Morphology to Express Atypical Ideas
1.3. Introductory Examples of Subversion
1.3.1. Survey of Pervasive and Structurally Significant Use of the Literary Genre
1.3.2. Evil, Injustice, and the Lack Th ereof
1.3.3. Eschatology
1.3.4. Conclusion

2. Th e Spatial Axis
2.1. Angels and Demons
2.1.1. Before the Flood: Th e Origin of Evil Th e Enochic Apocalypses Th e Danielic Apocalypses Jubilees
2.1.2. Aft er the Flood: Th e Persistence of Demons Th e Early Apocalypses Jubilees
2.1.3. Angelic Mediation Evidence outside the Apocalypses Th e Early Apocalypses Jubilees
2.1.4. Th e Leader of Evil Terms, Names, and Titles Satan in Nonapocalypse Received Scriptures Th e Early Apocalypses Mastema in Jubilees
2.1.5. Angels and Demons in the Eschatological Crisis and Restoration Th e Early Apocalypses Jubilees
2.2. Humans
2.2.1. Groups Th ird Isaiah Th e Enochic Apocalypses Th e Danielic Apocalypses Jubilees
2.2.2. Violence Th e Enochic Apocalypses Th e Danielic Apocalypses Jubilees

3. Th e Temporal Axis
3.1. Th e Decline of History
3.1.1. Th e Enochic Apocalypses
3.1.2. Th e Danielic Apocalypses and the Book of Daniel
3.1.3. Jubilees
3.2. Th e Final Woes
3.2.1. Th e Enochic Apocalypses
3.2.2. Th e Danielic Apocalypses
3.2.3. Jubilees Th e “Final Woes” Are Just Chastisement from God as Prescribed by the Covenant Th e “Final Woes” Have Already Been Fulfi lled Th e White Children
3.3. Th e Judgment
3.3.1. Th e Enochic Apocalypses
3.3.2. Th e Danielic Apocalypses and the Book of Daniel
3.3.3. Jubilees Jubilees 23 Th e Judgment Discourse in Jubilees 5 Th e Role of Enoch in Judgment Th e Judgment of Individual Nations
3.4. Th e Restoration
3.4.1. Th ird Isaiah
3.4.2. Th e Enochic Apocalypses
3.4.3. Th e Danielic Apocalypses and the Book of Daniel
3.4.4. Jubilees Th e Restoration in Jubilees 23 Is Gradual and Has Already Begun Jubilees 1:26–29 Identifi es the Indwelling of the Sanctuary in the Restoration with the Indwelling of the Sanctuary of Aaron Th e Law Revealed at Sinai Will Not Be Surpassed Th e Separation of the Israelites Was Planned from the Beginning Th e Borders of the Land of Israel Will Be Restored, Not Dissolved Th e Eschatological Calendar Will Restore, Not Replace, the Calendar Observed in the Past and in Heaven
3.5. Conclusion

4. Th e View of Revelation
4.1. Th e Use and View of Received Authority
4.1.1. Th e Enochic Apocalypses Th e Use of Enochic Traditions Th e Use of Non-Enochic Jewish Traditions
4.1.2. Th e Danielic Apocalypses Th e Use of Danielic Traditions Th e Use of Non-Danielic Jewish Traditions
4.1.3. Jubilees Th e Heavenly Tablets Departures from Genesis and Exodus
4.2. Th e Dependence of Revelation on Wisdom
4.2.1. Th e Enochic Apocalypses
4.2.2. Th e Danielic Apocalypses
4.2.3. Jubilees Revelation without the Elitism of Wisdom Revelation Made Unambiguous and Accessible

5. Explanation
5.1. Literary Insights into the Author’s Process
5.2. Literary Insights into the Audience’s Process
5.3. Historical Context
5.4. Cultural Context
5.5. Conclusion

Index of Ancient Sources
Index of Modern Authors
Index of Subjects
  • Collapse
  • Expand