Dutch Pamphlets, 1486-1853: The Knuttel Collection Part I: 1486-1648
The period from 1486 to 1648 was of crucial significance for the history of the Low Countries and the present Dutch State. This period witnessed first the consolidation of 17 quite disparate provinces under the hegemony of the Habsburg Monarchy. Later the Revolt of the Netherlands against the Spanish Habsburg king Philip II led in the course of 80 years of warfare to the establishment of the Republic of the United Provinces, the forerunner of the modern Netherlands State. The southern Netherlands - now the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg - continued under Habsburg dominion. Inextricably bound up with these developments on the political level, was the history of the Reformation in the Low Countries. The successful implantation of Calvinist Protestantism in the North and the triumph of Counter-Reformation Catholicism in the South were recognized in 1648 in the Treaty of Munster, which ended the Eighty Years War.