Extra-Territorial Policies for the Overseas Chinese


For over 150 years, China’s interactions with its diaspora have evolved according to the domestic and international geopolitical environment. This relationship (broadly described as qiaowu) is most visible in the form of cultural and economic activities; however, its main purpose is to cultivate, influence, and manage ethnic Chinese as part of a global transnational project to rally support for its proponents.

Qiaowu: Extra-Territorial Policies for the Overseas Chinese compares the rival policies and practices of the Chinese Communist Party with the Nationalist Kuomintang and Democratic Progressive Party governments of Taiwan. Political scientist James Jiann Hua To analyzes the role that qiaowu plays in harnessing the power of strategic overseas communities, and highlights the implications for China’s foreign relations.

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James Jiann Hua To, Ph.D. (2010) Canterbury University, New Zealand, is a lecturer at International Pacific College, Palmerston North. His most recent publication is “Beijing’s Policies for Managing Han and Ethnic-Minority Chinese Communities Abroad” in Journal of Current Chinese Affairs (4/2012).
"The author’s genuine enthusiasm for his chosen topic is evident throughout the work in the nuanced in-depth investigations he has carried out. The wealth of primary source materials cited in the bibliography is highly valuable. This monograph will become a frequently consulted resource for scholars examining China’s overseas Chinese policies."
– Manying Ip, University of Auckland, in New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 17.1 (2015).
Biographical Note
Notes on Romanization of Chinese
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

1.00 Introduction
1.01 Diasporas and Transnational Loyalties
1.02 Diasporas and International Relations Theory
1.03 Introduction to the Extant Literature
1.04 Aims of this Book
1.05 Qiaowu and Foreign Relations
1.06 Qiaowu and Social Control
1.07 Methodology
1.08 Layout

2.00 Mobilizing the OC in the 21st Century
2.01 Capitalizing on the Olympic Spirit
2.02 The 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests
2.03 The CCP’s Ideological Work and Influence on PRC Students
2.04 The 2008 Olympic Torch Rallies
2.05 Another Evolution in Qiaowu
2.06 Conclusion

3.00 Unveiling Qiaowu
3.01 The Role of the OC for the CCP-led Party-State
3.02 Political Mobilization
3.03 Espionage
3.04 Unveiling Qiaowu
3.05 Service for the OC: Qiaowu Cadres and Their United Front Duties
3.06 The CCP’s ‘Guiding Hand’
3.07 A Brief History of Qiaowu Organizational Structure
3.08 Origins of the PRC OC Qiaowu Bureaucracy
3.09 The “OC Problem”
3.10 Domestic Returned OC Work and Internal Chaos
3.11 The OC and Their Role in UF Work Abroad
3.12 Post-Revolution Qiaowu Policy
3.13 Political Structure of the Qiaowu Administration in the Contemporary Period
3.14 CCP Influence over Qiaowu Affairs
3.15 Qiaowu and Intra-governmental Bureaucracy
3.16 Decentralization of Power in Qiaowu Operations
3.17 Qiaowu as a Political Opportunity Structure
3.18 Conclusion

4.00 Targets and Subjects of Qiaowu
4.01 ROC Definition of the OC
4.02 ‘Taiwanization’ of ROC Qiaowu Operations
4.03 ‘Three Classifications’: The ROC’s Redefinition of Huaqiao
4.04 Damage Control
4.05 Name Changes
4.06 ROC OC Organs in the Contemporary Period
4.07 Rebuilding Links
4.08 PRC Definition of the OC
4.09 Distinguishing Huaqiao from Huaren
4.10 Xinqiao – Leading the Change in OC Demographics
4.11 Elite OC
4.12 Dual Nationality and the OC
4.13 Conclusion

5.00 Cultural Work: Reconstructing ‘Chineseness’
5.01 Theories of Ethnic Belonging
5.02 ‘Chineseness’
5.03 ROC Cultural and Educational Work
5.04 PRC Educational Work
5.05 PRC External OC Education
5.06 Confucius Institutes
5.07 Problems Regarding PRC OC Education
5.08 Challenging Alternative Forms of ‘Chineseness’
5.09 Promoting ‘Love’ for China: OC Church Work
5.10 Encouraging ‘Love’ for China: Earthquake Diplomacy
5.11 Evaluation of Nationalism and the OC
5.12 Conclusion

6.00 Cultural Work: Reconnection
6.01 Active Reconnection: Tours and Root-seeking
6.02 Xungen – Falling Leaves Return to Their Roots
6.03 Building Links
6.04 ROC OC Youth Work
6.05 PRC OC Youth Work
6.06 Comparison of Youth Work
6.07 Development of Youth Work
6.08 Soft Power and the OC Media
6.09 Borrowing Ships to Go to Sea
6.10 Managing OC Reporters
6.11 New Technology: Television and Radio
6.12 Qiaowu and the Internet
6.13 Conclusion

7.00 External Work: Threats & Challenges
7.01 The OC as Threats to the CCP
7.02 The OC Pro-Democracy Movement
7.03 The Taiwanese Independence Movement
7.04 Falungong
7.05 Tibetan Buddhism and the Xinjiang Independence Movement
7.06 Cooptation
7.07 We Are Family: “Grand Unification Nationalism”
7.08 China Embraces All OC: Winning Over the Moderates
7.09 Pre-Emptive Subversion
7.10 “Welcome In”
7.11 “Going Outside”
7.12 Transformation Work
7.13 Coercion
7.14 Divide and Rule
7.15 Diplomatic Pressure
7.16 Conclusion

8.00 External Work: Diplomatic Assistance
8.01 The PRC and Protection of the OC
8.02 1998 Indonesian Riots: A Turning Point in OC Affairs
8.03 ROC Protection for OC
8.04 Modern PRC Diplomatic Protection
8.05 The Limits of PRC Consular Assistance
8.06 The OC and Implications for PRC Foreign Policy
8.07 Conclusion

9.00 The Future of Qiaowu
9.01 OC Trade, Investment, and Migration
9.02 Illegal Migration and Transnational Criminal Activity in the Pacific
9.03 Passing on Responsibility for Migrant Behaviour and Illegal Migration
9.04 PRC Views on Illegal Migration
9.05 ‘Unqualified’ Chinese
9.06 Raising China’s Image: Getting Along Together
9.07 From ‘Three Knives’ to ‘Six Masters’
9.08 ‘Old’ Friends, ‘New’ Friends
9.09 Capacity-Building
9.10 Conclusion

10.00 Conclusion
10.01 From Strength to Strength: The Evolution of Qiaowu
10.02 Consolidating Power and Eliminating Rivals
10.03 Implications for the World
10.04 Conclusion

11.00 Bibliography
Anyone interested in overseas Chinese, their political associations, China’s international relations, diaspora, migration, immigration, and transnational policies and issues.
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