Transylvania in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century

The Rise of the Congregational System

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Author: Tudor Salagean
In Transylvania in the Second Half of the Thirteenth Century Tudor Salagean describes the deep transformations of a country that was the scene of a fierce resistance against the great Mongol invasion of 1241-1242. In the second half of the thirteenth century, with the rise of the provincial nobility, Transylvania redefines its internal political system, which reached its maturity during the rule of Ladislas Kan (1294-1315). The appearance of a complex congregational system, also achieved in this period, is connected with the assertion of Regnum Transilvanum, which represents a historical link between the early medieval regnum Erdewel of duke Gyula and the regnum transsilvaniensis of the Union of 1459, announcing the rise of the early modern Principality of Transylvania.

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Tudor Salagean is an associate professor of Heritage and Medieval History at the “Babes Bolyai” University in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and also the manager of the Transylvanian Museum of Ethnography. He is the author of a number of monographs and articles on Transylvanian history and heritage.
Contents
List of Maps vii
Introduction 1
1 The Mongol Invasion and Its Aftermath 4
1.1 Prerequisites 4
1.2 The Organization of Transylvania’s Defense 16
1.3 The Campaign 25
1.4 The Tartar Retreat: The Second Devastation of Transylvania 30
1.5 The Aftermath of the Invasion 34
2 From the Mongol Retreat to the Transylvanian Duchy (1243–1257) 49
2.1 Transylvania and the Council of Lyon 49
2.2 The Years of Recovery (1243–1248) 53
2.3 The Decade with No History (1248–1257) 58
3 The Duchy of Transylvania 63
3.1 Reinstating the Duchy of Transylvania 63
3.2 The Banate of Transylvania (1258–1261) 68
3.3 Civil Wars 71
3.4 Political and Social Change 90
4 Political Crisis in the First Years of Ladislas the Cuman’s Reign:
Attempts to Restore the Duchy of Transylvania 108
4.1 The Voivode Nicholas Geregye (1272–1274) 108
4.2 Transylvania under the Rule of the Csák Kindred (1274–1277) 112
4.3 The Saxon Rebellion (1277–1279) 119
4.4 The Aristocratic Triumvirate of 1278: The Domination of the Aba
Kindred in Transylvania (1279–1282) 124
5 Regnum Transilvanum: The Rise of the Congregational Regime 130
5.1 The Voivode Roland Borsa 130
5.2 The Mongol Invasion of 1285 135
5.3 Ladislas the Cuman and Transylvania 138
5.4 The Rise of the Congregational Regime 143
5.5 Ladislas iv and the Romanians of Transylvania 148
5.6 The End of Ladislas iv’s Reign 151
5.7 The “Constitutional” Reform of King Andrew iii 153
5.8 The End of Roland Borsa’s Rule (1294) 156
5.9 Regnum Transylvanum 157
6 Ladislas Kán (1294–1315): The Transylvanian Nobles and the
Congregational Regime 166
6.1 The Beginnings of Ladislas Kán’s Power 166
6.2 A Nearly Sovereign Transylvania (1301–1310) 175
6.3 The Major Coordinates of Kan’s Internal Policy 185
6.4 External Policy: Transylvania’s Involvement in the Competition
for the Hungarian Crown 202
6.5 The Compromise of 1310 and Its Consequences 214
7 Charles Robert and Transylvania 229
7.1 Civil War (1316–1322) 229
7.2 The Political Regime of the Restoration 237
Conclusions 244
Annexes 249
1 General Congregations and Noble Congregations of Transylvania
(1288–1322) 249
2 Dukes of Transylvania 251
3 Voivodes and vicevoivodes of Transylvania 251
4 Counts of the Transylvanian Counties 252
5 Counts of the Szeklers 254
6 Bishops of Transylvania 255
7 Provosts of the Chapter of Transylvanian Church 255
8 Archdeans of the Transylvanian Church 256
9 Provosts of Sibiu 257
Bibliography 258
Index 274
All interested in the history of Transylvania, of Central Europe and of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary.