Images, Texts, and Marginalia in a "Vows of the Peacock" Manuscript (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library MS G24)

With a Complete Concordance and Catalogue of Peacock Manuscripts

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The "Vows of the Peacock" - written in 1312 and dedicated to Thibaut de Bar, bishop of Liège - recounts how Alexander the Great comes to the aid of a family of aristocrats threatened by Indians. The poem remained popular throughout the fourteenth century and was soon followed by two sequels. Twenty-six illuminated manuscripts constitute part of a catalogue and concordance of all Peacock manuscripts. One of the most provocative, (PML, MS G24), has twenty-two miniatures which illustrate chivalry and courtly love, as epitomized in the text. An unusually high number of scurrilous marginalia, however, surround them. An interdisciplinary exploration of iconography, reception, image-text-marginalia dynamics, and context reveals their ultimate polysemy as scatological comedians and serious harbingers of sin.
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Biographical Note

Domenic Leo, Ph.D. (2005) in Art History, New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, is currently Adjunct Professor at Duquesne University,
Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. He is involved in multiple publications exploring illuminated manuscripts of French poet-composer Guillaume de Machaut's poetry and music.

Review Quote

“Leo provides a wealth of information that will be useful to many working on fourteenth- and fifteenth-century French manuscript production, on the Roman d’ Alexandre tradition, or on marginalia. The manuscript catalogue and concordances are particularly impressive, as is the bibliography, all of which provide an excellent foundation for future research.”
Mark Cruse, Arizona State University. In: Speculum, Vol. 89, No. 3 (July 2014), pp. 795-796.

“the book offers a treasure of interesting research material, plenty of photographs from the illustrative tradition, and a useful index of marginalia in the Glazier manuscript; it will be crucial for all future research on the Peacock manuscripts.”
Martine Meuwese, Utrecht University. In: Studies in Iconography, Vol. 36 (2015), p. 210-213.

"consists of an extremely detailed study of a single MS, Morgan Library MS G.24, which contains Jacques de Longuyon’s Voeux du paon (1312–13) as well as an incomplete copy of Jean le Court’s Restor du paon (before 1338). While the choice of this MS was dictated by availability, L.’s penetrating analysis of the MS and its creation shows how much an art-historical approach complements philology by casting a different light on the materiality of the text and its images, especially as L. takes this opportunity to delve into the wider problem of the illustration and diffusion of the whole Peacock cycle, which also includes a third text, Jean de Le Mote’s Parfait du paon. After the conclusion in chapter 7, ch. 8 and 9 along with five appendices provide a wealth of useful details about the MSS, their miniatures and marginalia, in particular the illustrated catalogue of all the MSS of the ‘Peacock Cycle’."
Laurent Brun, Université d’Ottawa. In: The Year's Work in Modern Language Studies, Vol. 76 (2016 [survey year 2014]), pp.14-34.



Table of contents

List of Illustrations ................................................................................................... ix Preface............................................................................................................xxv
Acknowledgments .............................................................................................. xxvii Abbreviations........................................................................................................ xxix

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1

1 The Glazier Peacock: Texts, Authors, and Patrons .................................... 33

2 The Glazier Peacock: Artists ........................................................................... 45

3 The Glazier Peacock: Miniatures ................................................................... 61

4 The Glazier Peacock: Marginalia ................................................................... 75

5 The Glazier Peacock: Festivities................................................................... 125

6 The Glazier Peacock: Texts, Images, and Heresy ..................................... 143

7 The Glazier Peacock: Conclusion ................................................................ 163

8 ‘Peacock Cycle’ Manuscripts: A Concordance of Miniatures............... 169

9 Catalogue of ‘Peacock Cycle’ Manuscripts................................................ 217


Appendices

1 Concordance of Tituli ..................................................................................... 319
2 Arse-Generated Humor: Proverbial Phrases ............................................ 331
3 Pierart dou Tielt................................................................................................ 333
4 Comparison Table for Proverbs in the Marginalia .................................. 335
5 Comparison Table for Obscenae in the Marginalia ................................ 357

Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 375
General Index ........................................................................................................ 391
Index of Marginalia .............................................................................................. 395







LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


Charts

1. Master filiation ..................................................................................................... 9
2. Style-based stemma ......................................................................................... 10
3. Manuscripts with related rubrics ................................................................. 11
4. Rennes Rose master comparison (with illustrations) ............................. 12
A. BnF, ms. fr. 25522, fol. 1, det. [N3], Alexander and
Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). ........................................... 12
B. New Haven, Beinecke Library MS 613,
fol. 1, det. [S10] Alexander and Cassamus
(photo with permission: Beinecke Library). ....................................... 12
C. BnF, ms. fr. 2136, fol. 1, det. [S3]
Alexander and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF)................ 12
D. BnF, ms. fr. 14972, fol. 1, det. [N4] Alexander
and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). ................................... 12
E. BnF, ms. fr. 25522, fol. 1, det. [N3] Frame
detail (photo with permission: BnF). .................................................... 12
F. BnF, ms. fr. 25522, fol. 1, det. [N3] Border detail
(photo with permission: BnF). ................................................................ 12
G. New Haven, Beinecke Library MS 613,
fol. 1, det. [S10] Border detail (photo with
permission: Beinecke Library)................................................................ 12
H. BnF, ms. fr. 2136, fol. 1, det. [S3] Frame detail
(photo with permission: BnF). ............................................................... 12
5. Thomas de Maubeuge (with illustrations)................................................. 13
A. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. lat.
MS 3209, fol. 1, det. [P3] Alexander and Cassamus
(photo with permission: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana)............... 13
B. BnF, ms. fr. 790, fol. 107v, det. [Q] Alexander
and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). .................................... 13
C. BnF, ms. fr. 1590, fol. 96, det. [S] Alexander
and the Queen (photo with permission: BnF). ................................... 13
6. ‘Family Cluster’ .................................................................................................. 14
7. Thomas de Maubeuge and the Montbastons:
Joint work (with illustrations) ....................................................................... 15


A. BnF, ms. fr. 790, fol. 107v, det. [Q] Alexander
and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). ................................. 15
B. BnF, ms. fr. 24386, fol. 1, det. [N6] Alexander
and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). ................................. 15
C. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 165, fol. 138,
det. [S1] The Golden Peacock (photo with
permission: Bodleian Library).............................................................. 15
D. BnF, ms. fr. 24386, fol. 164, det. [N6] The Golden
Peacock (photo with permission: BnF). ............................................ 15
E. BL, MS Add. 16888, fol. 142 [N1] The
Golden Peacock (photo with permission
© The British Library Board)................................................................. 15
8. Richard and Jeanne de Montbaston
(with illustrations) ......................................................................................... 16
A. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 165, fol. 1
[S1] Alexander and Cassamus (photo with permission:
Bodleian Library). .................................................................................... 16
B. Copenhagen, Royal Library, MS Thott 414,
fol. 1 [S7] Alexander and Cassamus (photo with
permission: Royal Library, Copenhagen)........................................... 16
C. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 165, fol. 138,
det. [S1] Initial ‘S’ (photo with permission:
Bodleian Library). .................................................................................... 16
D. BL, MS Add. 16888, fol. 142, det. [N1] Initial
‘Q’(photo with permission © The British
Library Board)........................................................................................... 16
E. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 165, fol. 1, det.
[S1] Initial ‘A’ (photo with permission:
Bodleian Library). .................................................................................... 16
9. Jeanne de Montbaston (with illustrations) ............................................. 17
A. BnF, ms. fr. 25521, fol. 1, det. [N5] Alexander
and Cassamus (photo with permission: BnF). ................................. 17
B. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 165, fol. 1,
det. [S1] Alexander and Cassamus (photo with
permission: Bodleian Library). ............................................................. 17
10. Fusion: Voeux [P] stemma (Casey). ........................................................... 18
11. Fusion: Voeux I [S] redaction (Magill). ..................................................... 19
12. Fusion: Restor stemma (Donkin/Carey)................................................... 20
13. Codicological structure and disposition of
artists in the Glazier Peacock ........................................ 251, 252, 253, 254
14. Codicology and artists in the Bodleian Alexander .....................271, 272


15. The vows and their accomplishment in the Glazier Peacock ............ 35
16. La Courtoisie et la chevalerie (Courtliness and Chivalry)
versus La Bataille (The Battle)..................................................................... 74


Illustrations

1. Bodleian Library, MS Douce 308, Voeux du paon, fol. 1, The armies of Alexander and Cassamus meet
(photo with permission: The Bodleian Library)..................................... 22
2. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 3209,
Voeux du paon, fol. 1, Alexander and Cassamus (photo with
permission: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana). ........................................ 23
3. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 3209,
Voeux du paon, fol. 1, det., ‘Author portrait’ – scribe writing
or reading – in letter ‘A’ (photo with permission: Biblioteca
Apostolica Vaticana). ..................................................................................... 24
4. BnF, ms. fr. 790, Roman d’Alexandre, fol. 1, det., Aristotle
teaching the young Alexander (photo with permission: BnF). .......... 24
5. Cologny (Geneva), Fondation Martin Bodmer,
Codex Bodmer 189, Voeux du paon, fol. 68v (photo with
permission: Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cologny, Geneva)................. 26
6. PML, MS G24, Voeux du paon, fol. 42v, det., A six-line
initial marks the beginning of Part II of the Voeux, (photo
with permission: The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York). .............. 28
7. PML, MS G24, Voeux du paon, fol. 102v, det.,
A four-line initial marks the beginning of the Restor du paon
(photo with permission: The Pierpont Morgan Library,
New York).......................................................................................................... 28
8. PML, MS G24, Restor du paon, fol. 141 (photo
with permission: The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York). .............. 29
9. PML, MS G24, Restor du paon, fol. 141v, det., flourished
initial (photo with permission: The Pierpont Morgan Library,
New York).......................................................................................................... 30
10. BnF, ms. fr. 12565, Restor du paon, fol. 189, det., A man
reading from a book to a group of standing people is reading
the beginning of the Restor (photo with permission: BnF). ............... 39
11. BnF, ms. fr. 12565, Parfait du paon, fol. 233v, det., This
image marks the beginning of the Parfait, where a seated king
speaks to a group of people who come from high-ranking
members of society (photo with permission: BnF). ............................. 40
12. PML, MS G24, laisse 45, (l. 1623) fol. 4, det., Ausi que
Betis fu coronnes de Festus (Fésonas crowns Betis in the game
‘le roy qui ne ment’with Édéas, Cassiel the Baudrain, Ydorus,
and two men), (photo with permission: PML). ...................................... 46
13. PML, MS G24, laisse 70, (l. 2384), Voeux du paon,
fol. 19v, det., Comment Emenidus offri amende a gadifer
devant le roi alixandre (Emenidus offers amends to Gadifer
before Alexander the Great), (photo with permission: PML). ........... 46
14. PML, MS G24, laisse 70, (l. 2749), Voeux du paon, fol.
25v, det., Comment Fesonas jue au Baudrain et Cassamus le iete
dun cousin (Cassamus throws a pillow at Fésonas and Cassiel
the Baudrain who are playing chess), (photo with permission:
PML)................................................................................................................... 47
15. PML, MS G24, laisse 94, (l. 3042), Voeux du paon,
fol. 30v, det., Le jouste de Porrus et de Floridas (The Joust of
Porrus and Floridas [who was unhorsed] and the animal raid),
(photo with permission: PML).................................................................... 47
16. PML, MS G24, laisse 97, (l. 3125), Voeux du paon,
fol. 32, det., Ausi que li bataille fu devant la citet Fesonas
(The knights of Ephéson and India fight before the gate of
the city of Fésonas [Ephéson]), (photo with permission: PML). ...... 48
17. PML, MS G24, laisse 103, (l. 3312), Voeux du paon, fol.
34v, det., La bataille de ii fil Clarus a Gadifer et a Ariste (The
battle of Clarus’ two sons against Gadifer and Aristé [before
the castle of Ephéson]), (photo with permission: PML). .................... 48
18. PML, MS G24, laisse 106, (l. 3418), Voeux du paon,
fol. 36, det., Comment Betis fu pris entre les fouriers (How
Betis was captured [by Clarus’ knights]), (photo with
permission: PML). .......................................................................................... 49
19. PML, MS G24, laisse 109, (l. 3525), Voeux du paon, fol.
37v, det., Comment Porrus fu pris (How Porrus was taken prisoner
[by Ephéson’s knights]), (photo with permission: PML)..................... 49
20. PML, MS G24, laisse 121, (l. 3877), Voeux du paon,
fol. 43v, det., Ausi que Porrus traist le paon sour le saile (How
Porrus killed the peacock), (photo with permission: PML). ............... 50
21. PML, MS G24, laisse 123, (l. 3916), Voeux du paon,
fol. 44, det., Chou est le table dou veu dou paon (This is the
table where the Vows of the Peacock took place [Perhaps
this is the heated reaction of Porrus’ and/or Cassiel’s vows]),
(photo with permission: PML).................................................................... 50
22. PML, MS G24, laisse 138, (l. 4352), Voeux du paon,
fol. 52, det., Comment le pris et li paon fu donnes a Aristet a la
table (How the prize and the peacock were given [by Elyot]
to Aristé at the table), (photo with permission: PML). ........................ 51
23. PML, MS G24, laisse 145, (l. 4542), Voeux du paon,
fol. 55, det., Ausi que que [sic] Liones jousta a Canaan et le roy
Clarus (Vow 1: How Lyoné jousted with Canaäm [Prince of
India] before [his father], King Clarus), (photo with
permission: PML). .......................................................................................... 51
24. PML, MS G24, laisse 181, (l. 5417), Voeux du paon,
fol. 69v, det., Comment Fesonas rechust Alixandre avokes
les xii peres (How Fésonas greets Alexander with the Twelve
Worthies [preux] at the gates of Ephéson), (photo with
permission: PML). .......................................................................................... 52
25. PML, MS G24, laisse 214, (6178) fol. 80v, det., Comment Porrus
accompli son veu ki tolli Amenidon sou cheval (Vow 2A:
How Porrus fulfilled his vow by unhorsing Emenidus),
(photo with permission: PML).................................................................... 52
26. PML, MS G24, laisse 218, (l. 6278), Voeux du paon,
fol. 82v, det., Comment Perdicas son veu accompli (Vow 3: How
Perdicas fulfilled his vow), (photo with permission: PML). ................ 53
27. PML, MS G24, laisse 226, (l. 6476), Voeux du paon,
fol. 85v, det., Comment Perdicas vint a piet et le rois Clarus se
combat a Cassamus a piet (How Perdicas came on foot and
King Clarus and Cassamus fought on foot), (photo with
permission: PML). .......................................................................................... 53
28. PML, MS G24, laisse 227, (l. 6496), Voeux du paon,
fol. 86, det., Comment Cassamus acomplist son veu et ayde le roy
Clarus (Vow 4: How Cassamus accomplished his vow by aiding
the [unhorsed] King Clarus [to remount]), (photo with
permission: PML) ........................................................................................... 54
29. PML, MS G24, laisse 228, (l. 6518) fol. 86v, det.;
Comment ochist le roi de pincernie (How [Aristé] slew the King
of Pincernia), (photo with permission: PML)......................................... 54
30. PML, MS G24, laisse 230, (l. 6586), Voeux du paon,
fol. 88, det.; Comment li Baudrains toil lespee au roy Alixandre
(Vow 5: How [Cassiel] the Baudrain took Alexander’s sword),
(photo with permission: PML).................................................................... 55
31. PML, MS G24, laisse 231, (l. 6614), Voeux du paon,
fol. 88v, det., Comment Caulus achieve son veu et oste le Baudrain
son heaume (Vow 6: How Caulus fulfills his vow by taking [Cassiel] the Baudrain’s
32. PML, MS G24, laisse 269, (l. 7762), Voeu

Readership

All art historians interested in Late Medieval French manuscript illumination and iconography, historians of fourteenth-century France and Flanders, literary historians of Old French secular poetry and of reception theory.

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