Church and School in Early Modern Protestantism

Studies in Honor of Richard A. Muller on the Maturation of a Theological Tradition


A great deal of scholarship has too often juxtaposed scholasticism and piety, resulting in misunderstandings of the relationship between Protestant churches of the early modern era and the theology taught in their schools. But more recent scholarship, especially conducted by Richard A. Muller over the last number of decades, has remapped the lines of continuity and discontinuity in the relation of church and school. This research has produced a more methodologically nuanced and historically accurate representation of church and school in early modern Protestantism. Written by leading scholars of early modern Protestant theology and history and based on research using the most relevant original sources, this collection seeks to broaden our understanding of how and why clergy were educated to serve the church.

Contributors include: Yuzo Adhinarta, Willem van Asselt, Irena Backus, Jordan J. Ballor, J. Mark Beach, Andreas Beck, Joel R. Beeke, Lyle D. Bierma, Raymond A. Blacketer, James E. Bradley, Dariusz M. Bryćko, Amy Nelson Burnett, Emidio Campi, Heber Carlos de Campos Jr, Kiven Choy, R. Scott Clark, Paul Fields, John V. Fesko, Paul Fields, W. Robert Godfrey, Alan Gomes, Albert Gootjes, Chad Gunnoe, Aza Goudriaan, Fred P. Hall, Byung-Soo (Paul) Han, Nathan A. Jacobs, Frank A. James III, Martin Klauber, Henry Knapp, Robert Kolb, Mark J. Larson, Brian J. Lee, Karin Maag, Benjamin T.G. Mayes, Andrew M. McGinnis, Paul Mpindi, Adriaan C. Neele, Godfried Quaedtvlieg, Sebastian Rehnman, Todd Rester, Gregory D. Schuringa, Herman Selderhuis, Donald Sinnema, Keith Stanglin, David Steinmetz, David Sytsma, Yudha Thianto, John L. Thompson, Carl Trueman, Theodore G. Van Raalte, Cornelis Venema, Timothy Wengert, Reita Yazawa, Jeongmo Yoo, and Jason Zuidema.

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Jordan J. Ballor (Dr. theol., Zurich), is a research fellow at the Acton Institute and associate director of the Junius Institute for Digital Reformation Research at Calvin Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA

David Sytsma (Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary), is research curator at the Junius Institute for Digital Reformation Research and adjunct professor at Calvin Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA

Jason Zuidema (Ph.D., McGill), is Affiliate Assistant Professor in the Department of Theological Studies, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
“this volume is both a worthy tribute to the scholar whom it celebrates, and an excellent introduction to the kind of work which he has inspired in others.” – Stephen Hampton, Peterhouse, Cambridge, in: The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 66, No. 1 (January 2015), pp. 193-194
Church and School in Early Modern Protestantism will leave many readers with a long “to read” list, especially considering the many referenced primary source materials. It is hard to envision a more fitting tribute to Richard Muller for his vital research in historic Reformed theology.” – Ryan M. McGraw, in: Puritan Reformed Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2 (2014), pp. 359-363
“The three editors … are to be commended for arranging a volume that does justice to the career of a man whose influence on Reformation and Post-Reformation studies will be felt for many generations.” – Mark Jones, University of the Free State (Bloemfontein), in: Church History and Religious Culture, Vol. 95, No. 1 (2015), pp. 93-94
“a fitting tribute to the man and the scholar […] Students and scholars will find many essays that will provoke, illuminate, and explicate the past as well as serve the present age.” – David M. Whitford, Baylor University, in: Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 2 (Summer 2016), pp. 753-755
“A great deal of scholarship has too often juxtaposed scholasticism and piety, resulting in misunderstandings of the relationship between Protestant churches of the early modern era and the theology taught in their schools.” – Jim West, Quartz Hill School of Theology, in: Zwinglius Redivivus (blog), October 29, 2013

Acknowledgements / Dedication
Introduction: The Dogma Is Not Necessarily the Drama

Carl Trueman


Justification by Faith Alone: Martin Luther among the Early Anglicans
David C. Steinmetz

Philip Melanchthon and Wittenberg’s Reform of the Theological Curriculum
Timothy J. Wengert

Academic Heresy, the Reuchlin Affair, and the Control of Theological Discourse in the Early Sixteenth Century
Amy Nelson Burnett

Influences in Luther’s Reforms
Fred P. Hall

Pastoral Education in the Wittenberg Way
Robert Kolb

François Lambert d’Avignon (ca. 1487-1530): Early Ecclesial Reform and Training for the Ministry at Marburg
Theodore G. (Ted) Van Raalte


The Idea of a ‘General Grace of God’ in Some Sixteenth-Century Reformed Theologians other than Calvin
J. Mark Beach

Calvin’s Reception and Reformulation of the Necessitarian Concepts of the Early Reformation on Human Will, Providence, and Predestination
Kiven S.K. Choy

The duplex gratia Dei and the Organization of Calvin’s Institutes: ordo docendi or ordo salutis?
Cornelis P. Venema

Calvin’s Hermeneutics of the Imprecations of the Psalter
Paul Mpindi

The Italian Convert: Marquis Galeazzo Caracciolo and the English Puritans
Emidio Campi

Confluence and Influence: Peter Martyr Vermigli and Thomas Aquinas on Predestination
Frank A. James III

Peter Martyr Vermigli, Scholasticism, and Aquinas’ Justice of War Doctrine
Mark J. Larson

Moral Philosophy and Moral Theology in Vermigli
Sebastian Rehnman

Word and Spirit in the Piety of Peter Martyr Vermigli as Seen in his Commentary on 1 Corinthians
Jason Zuidema

EARLY ORTHODOXY (ca. 1565-1640)

The Man in the Black Hat: Theodore Beza and the Reorientation of Early Reformed Historiography
Raymond A. Blacketer

From Professors to Pastors: the Convoluted Careers of Jean Diodati and Théodore Tronchin
Karin Maag

Swiss Students and Faculty at the University of Heidelberg, 1518-1622
Charles D. Gunnoe Jr.

Johannes Piscator’s (1546-1625) Interpretation of Calvin’s Institutes
Heber Carlos de Campos Jr.

The Academization of Reformation Teaching in Johann Heinrich Alsted (1588-1638)
Byung Soo Han

Theology and Piety in Ursinus’ Summa Theologiae
Lyle D. Bierma

Law and Gospel in Early Reformed Orthodoxy: Hermeneutical Conservatism in Olevianus’ Commentary on Romans
R. Scott Clark

Laurence Chaderton: An Early Puritan Vision for Church and School
Joel R. Beeke

The Danzig Academic Gymnasium in Seventeenth-Century Poland
Dariusz M. Bryćko

Arminius on Facientibus Quod in Se Est and Likely Medieval Sources
J.V. Fesko

Bona Conscientia Paradisus: An Augustinian-Arminian Trope
Keith D. Stanglin

A Promise for Parents: Dordt’s Perspective on Covenant and Election
W. Robert Godfrey

Type, Anti-type, and the Sensus Literalis: Protestant Reformed Orthodox Approaches to Psalm 2
Todd Rester

The Holy Spirit and the Church’s Mission: The Perspective of the Reformed Confessions
Yuzo Adhinarta

The Attempt to Establish a Chair in Practical Theology at Leiden University (1618-1626)
Donald Sinnema

Theologia practica: The Diverse Meanings of a Subject of Early Modern Academic Writing
Aza Goudriaan

Lumina, non Numina: Patristic Authority According to Lutheran Arch-Theologian Johann Gerhard
Benjamin T.G. Mayes

The Logic of the Heart: Analyzing the Affections in Early Reformed Orthodoxy
David S. Sytsma

Reformed Education from Geneva through the Netherlands to the East Indies
Yudha Thianto

HIGH ORTHODOXY (ca. 1640-1725)

‘A Grievous Sin’: Gisbertus Voetius (1589-1676) and his Anti-Lombard Polemic
Willem J. van Asselt

Voetius on the Subject and Formal Act of Happiness—A Scholastic Exercise
Andreas J. Beck

Revealing the Mind of God: Exegetical Method in the Seventeenth Century
Henry Knapp

Reason Run Amok? The Protestant Orthodox Charge of Rationalism against Faustus Socinus (with Special Consideration of a ‘Smoking Gun’ Passage from De Jesu Christo Servatore)
Alan W. Gomes

Johannes Cocceius as Federal Polemicist: The Usefulness of the Distinction Between the
Brian J. Lee

‘A Smattering of the New Philosophy’: Étienne Gaussen (ca. 1638-1675) and the Cartesian Question at Saumur
Albert Gootjes

Nonconformist Schools, the Schism Act, and the Limits of Toleration in England’s Confessional State
James E. Bradley

Piety, Theology, Exegesis, and Tradition: Anna Maria van Schurman’s ‘Elaboration’ of Genesis 1-3 and Its Relationship to the Commentary Tradition
John L. Thompson

John Howe (1630-1705) on Divine Simplicity: A Debate over Spinozism
Reita Yazawa

Orthodoxy, Scholasticism and Piety in the Seventeenth-Century Further Reformation: Simon Oomius
Gregory D. Schuringa

Illustration: Cornelis Hendrikus Elleboogius (ca. 1603-1701)

Mylius on Elleboogius: A Fatal Misinterpretation
Godfried Quaedtvlieg

The Shape of Reformed Orthodoxy in the Seventeenth Century: The Soteriological Debate between George Kendall and Richard Baxter
Jordan J. Ballor

G.W. Leibniz and Protestant Scholasticism in the Years 1698-1704
Irena Backus

LATE ORTHODOXY (ca. 1725-1790)

The Uniqueness of Christ in Post-Reformation Reformed Theology: From Francis Turretin to Jean-Alphonse Turretin
Martin I. Klauber

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) and the Nature of Theology
Adriaan C. Neele

Calvinism as Reformed Protestantism: Clarification of a Term
Herman Selderhuis

Reconsidering the Platonism of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) and its Role in his Thought on the Education of Artists
Nathan A. Jacobs

The Bristol Academy and the Education of Ministers in Eighteenth-Century England (1758-1791)
Jeongmo Yoo

Bibliography of the Works of Richard A. Muller
Paul W. Fields and Andrew M. McGinnis

Notes on Contributors

All those interested in intellectual history, Reformation and post-Reformation history and theology, history of universities, and interested laypersons, especially of Reformed and Lutheran traditions.
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