China's Public Diplomacy


In China's Public Diplomacy, author Ingrid d'Hooghe contributes to our understanding of what constitutes and shapes a country's public diplomacy, and what factors undermine or contribute to its success.

China invests heavily in policies aimed at improving its image, guarding itself against international criticism and advancing its domestic and international agenda. This volume explores how the Chinese government seeks to develop a distinct Chinese approach to public diplomacy, one that suits the country's culture and authoritarian system. Based on in-depth case studies, it provides a thorough analysis of this approach, which is characterized by a long-term vision, a dominant role for the government, an inseparable and complementary domestic dimension, and a high level of interconnectedness with China's overall foreign policy and diplomacy.

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Ingrid d'Hooghe, Ph.D, is a senior research associate at the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'. She has published widely in the field of China's foreign policy and diplomacy.
The Case of China’s Public Diplomacy
The Design of the Study: Questions and Assumptions
The Selection of Case Studies
Overview of the Chapters

Chapter 1 How to Understand Public Diplomacy: An Analytical Framework
The Concept of Public Diplomacy
The Challenges of Public Diplomacy 2.0
Public Diplomacy and Soft Power
Public Diplomacy and Propaganda
Subsets of Public Diplomacy
The Domestic Dimension and the Role of Diasporas
The Analytical Framework
Dimension I: Actors and Decision-making
Dimension II: Public Diplomacy Content
Dimension III: Public Diplomacy Instruments
The Impact of a Country’s Political System
The Impact of Culture on Public Diplomacy

Chapter 2 Assets and Liabilities for China’s Public Diplomacy
The Importance of Culture
China’s Authoritarian System
Media and Social Media Censorship
Human Rights and Tibet
The Lack of Cultural Freedom
China’s Economic Rise
The China Model
China’s Environmental Challenges
The Copenhagen Summit
China’s Foreign Policy and Diplomacy
The Concepts of Harmonious World and Chinese Dream
China’s Military Rise and Cyber-Security
Chinese Tourists

Chapter 3 The Chinese Debate on Public Diplomacy
The Introduction of Soft Power and Public Diplomacy in China
The Chinese Understanding of Public Diplomacy
Defining Public Diplomacy
New Public Diplomacy and Public Diplomacy 2.0
Public Diplomacy and Propaganda
Soft Power
Cultural and People’s Diplomacy
The Domestic Dimension
Sources of Soft Power
Chinese Culture as a Source of Soft Power
The China Model as a Source of Soft Power
The Impact of Culture on Public Diplomacy
Challenges and Constraints

Chapter 4 China’s Public Diplomacy System
The Growing Diversity of Actors
National State Actors
The State Council Information Office
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Chinese Embassies and Missions Abroad
The Ministry of National Defense and the PLA
Other Ministries
China’s Leaders
The Chinese Communist Party
The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference
Subnational State Actors
Non-State Actors
People’s Diplomacy Organizations
Intellectual Elites and Academic Institutions
Volunteers and Celebrities
Overseas Chinese
Consequences of the Diversification of Actors
Public Diplomacy Instruments
The Media
The New Media
Foreign Media
Cultural Institutes and Activities
Educational Institutes and Activities
Confucius Institutes
Foreign Aid
China’s Public Diplomacy Budget

Chapter 5 China’s Public Diplomacy Strategies: Asia and Africa
China’s Public Diplomacy in Asia
South and Southeast Asia
Central Asia
Northeast Asia: Japan and South Korea
China’s Public Diplomacy in Africa
Analysis and Conclusions

Chapter 6 Proactive Public Diplomacy: Events
The Beijing Olympic Games and the Shanghai World Expo
The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games
Winning the Olympic Bid
Olympics’ Public Diplomacy
Evaluation of the Event
The 2010 Shanghai World Expo
Winning the Expo Bid
World Expo Public Diplomacy
Evaluation of the Event
Lessons Learned

Chapter 7 Reactive Public Diplomacy: Crises
The SARS Epidemic, Product Scandals, and the Wenchuan Earthquake
The 2003 SARS Epidemic
The Unfolding of the Crisis
Public Diplomacy Actions
Lessons Learned
Food and Toy Safety Crises
The 2007 Pet Food and Toys’ Scandals
The 2008 Contaminated Milk-Powder Scandal
The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake
The Role of the Domestic Media
The Role of the PLA

Chapter 8 The Reception of China’s Public Diplomacy
Measuring the Effect of Public Diplomacy
Global Views of China
Interpreting Poll Results

The Importance China Attaches to Public Diplomacy
The Impact of China’s Authoritarian Political System
Media Control and Censorship
Other Impacts
The Impact of Chinese Culture on Public Diplomacy
A Strategic and Holistic Approach
Evolution and Challenges
Issues for Future Research
All those interested in modern public diplomacy in China.
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