The Judge and International Custom / Le juge et la coutume internationale

International custom remains one of the most important sources of international law despite the codification of the law and the numerous international agreements concluded between the different actors of the international community. However, uncertainties still remain in relation to several of its aspects, including its formation, evidence and the relationship between its two constituent elements, that is, State practice and opinio juris. This presents challenges to national and international judges when called upon to identify and apply the rules of customary international law. With a view to addressing these grey areas, the Council of Europe ad hoc Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI) in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France organised a conference on “The Judge and International Custom” where important contributions were made by international and national judges clarifying some aspects of this topical issue. This volume contains these contributions, supplemented with articles commissioned by the CAHDI from some of the highest judges at international and national level. The collection highlights the valuable contribution made by the CAHDI to the development of public international law and in particular to the work of the International Law Commission and the Sixth Committee of the United Nations General Assembly by participating proactively in the legal debate to establish a well-defined international legal framework for this topical issue.

La coutume internationale demeure l’une des sources les plus importantes du droit international malgré la codification du droit et les nombreux accords internationaux conclus entre les différents acteurs de la communauté internationale. Néanmoins, des incertitudes subsistent sur plusieurs de ses aspects, notamment sa formation, son identification et les liens entre ses deux éléments constitutifs, à savoir la pratique des Etats et l’opinio juris. Ces incertitudes constituent un défi pour les juges nationaux et internationaux lorsqu’ils sont appelés à identifier et à appliquer les règles de droit international coutumier. En vue d’examiner ces zones d’ombre, le Comité ad hoc des Conseillers juridiques sur le droit international public (CAHDI) du Conseil de l’Europe a organisé une Conférence en coopération avec le ministère des Affaires étrangères de la France sur « Le juge et la coutume internationale » au cours de laquelle d’importantes contributions ont été faites par des juges nationaux et internationaux afin de clarifier certains aspects de cette question d’actualité. Ce volume contient ces contributions, ainsi que des articles supplémentaires sollicités par le CAHDI aux plus hauts juges aux niveaux international et national. Le recueil souligne la contribution précieuse apportée par le CAHDI au développement du droit international public et en particulier aux travaux de la Commission du droit international et de la Sixième Commission de l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies en participant de façon proactive au débat juridique visant à établir un cadre juridique international bien défini sur ce sujet d’actualité.

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Hardback
Foreword Thorbjorn Jagland; Preface Liesbeth Lijnzaad; Introduction Edwige Belliard;
Part I
The Role of Customary Law in International Courts
Customary International Law in the Jurisprudence of the World Court: The Increasing Relevance of Codification Peter Tomka;
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and Customary International Law Tullio Treves and Ximena Hinrichs;
The Judge and International Custom: Perspective of the European Union and its Court of Justice Jiří Malenovský;
Customary International Law in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights Ineta Ziemele;
Customary International Law in the Case Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Eduardo Vio Grossi;
Part II
The Role of Customary Law in National Courts
International Custom in French Public Law Bernard Stirn;
Customary Law before the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany Andreas Paulus;
Customary International Law before Dutch Courts: Nyugat and Beyond Liesbeth Lijnzaad;
The Development of the Public Order Concept in Russian Case Law Dmitry Dedov;
Customary International Law in the Case Law of the Constitutional Court of Slovenia Ernest Petrić;
The Law of International Custom in the Case Law of the House of Lords and the United Kingdom Supreme Court Lord Collins of Mapesbury and Tom Cross;
Part III
The Work of the International Law Commission on Formation and Evidence of Customary International Law
The Current Work of the International Law Commission and the Role of Judges in Relation to International Custom Sir Michael Wood.
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