The Atoning Dyad: The Two Goats of Yom Kippur in the Apocalypse of Abraham

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The study explores the eschatological reinterpretation of the Yom Kippur ritual found in the Apocalypse of Abraham where the protagonist of the story, the patriarch Abraham, takes on the role of a celestial goat for YHWH, while the text’s antagonist, the fallen angel Azazel, is envisioned as the demonic scapegoat. The study treats the application of the two goats typology to human and otherworldly figures in its full historical and interpretive complexity through a broad variety of Jewish and Christian sources, from the patriarchical narratives of the Hebrew Bible to early Christian materials in which Yom Kippur traditions were applied to Jesus’ story.
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Biographical Note

Andrei A. Orlov, Ph.D. in Sociology (1990), Russian Academy of Sciences, and Theology (2003), Marquette University, Professor of Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity at the same institution. He has published extensively on Jewish apocalypticism and early Jewish mysticism, including The Enoch-Metatron Tradition (Mohr/Siebeck, 2005), Heavenly Priesthood in the Apocalypse of Abraham (Cambridge, 2013), and Divine Scapegoats: Demonic Mimesis in Early Jewish Mysticism (SUNY, 2015).

Table of contents

Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Introduction
INTERPRETATION OF THE TWO GOATS’ IMAGERY IN EARLY JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN MATERIALS
Cain and Abel
Isaac and Ishmael
Jacob and Esau
Joseph
The Angel of the Divine Name and Satan in the Book of Zechariah
Asael in the Book of the Watchers
Barabbas and Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew
Jesus as the Immolated Goat in the Epistle to the Hebrews
Jesus as the Scapegoat and the Immolated Goat in Second- and Third-Century Christian Materials
AZAZEL AS AN ESCHATOLOGICAL SCAPEGOAT IN THE APOCALYPSE OF ABRAHAM
The Sacerdotal Vision of the Slavonic Apocalypse
Azazel as a Demonic Being
The Lot of Azazel
The Crimson Band and the Placement of the Garment of Human Sins on Azazel
The Ritual Maltreatment of the Scapegoat: Azazel’s Accursing
Azazel’s Exile into the Wilderness and the Abyss
Goats to Azazel: The Antagonist as the Recipient of the Scapegoats
ABRAHAM AS AN ESCHATOLOGICAL GOAT FOR YHWH IN THE APOCALYPSE OF ABRAHAM
Abraham as a Sacrificial Offering
The Lot of God and Abraham
Yahoel’s Right Hand
The Garment of Abraham
The Antagonistic Movements of the Goats: Abraham’s Entrance in the Celestial Holy of Holies
Abraham’s Fiery Trials
Abraham as the Purification Offering for the Polluted Sanctuary
Conclusion
Bibliography
Modern Author Index
Subject Index

Readership

The book will be of interest to scholars of early Judaism and Christianity, Old Testament and New Testament studies, Jewish mysticism and magic, and experts in Slavonic texts.