Phenomenology of Perception

Theories and Experimental Evidence

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Phenomenology of Perception: Theories and Experimental Evidence reconstructs and reviews the phenomenological research of the Brentano School, Edgar Rubin, David Katz, Albert Michotte and Gestalt psychology. Phenomenology is commonly considered a philosophy of subjective experience, but this book presents it instead as a set of commitments for philosophy and science to discover the immanent grammar underlying the objective meaning of perception. Pioneering experimental results on the qualitative and quantitative structures of the perceptual world are collected to show that, contrary to the received assumption, phenomenology can be embedded in standard science. This book will therefore be of interest not only to phenomenologists but also to anyone concerned with epistemological and empirical issues in contemporary psychology and the cognitive sciences.
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Biographical Note

Carmelo Calì, Ph.D. (2002), University of Palermo, is Assistant Professor at that university. He has published papers and chapters on the theory of perception and its implications for the psychology of arts, the cognitive sciences, and the social robotics.

Table of contents

Introduction

1. The Nature and Science of Perception
1.1 Perceptual Properties: Sensory Effects and the Representational Structure of Perception
1.2 Sensory Aggregates and the Projection of Knowledge
1.3 Normal Conditions and Experimental Observation
1.4 Perceptual Properties at Face Value: the Phenomenal Basis of Science
1.5 Appearances, Meaning and Relations
1.6 Observing Phenomena “from the Outside”: Series and Order of Appearances

2. Phenomenology in Philosophy and Science of Perception
2.1 The Empirical Grammar of Perception in Brentano
2.1.1 The Elements of Phenomena
2.2 The Neutral Science of Appearances in Stumpf
2.2.1 The Immanent Structural Laws of Appearances
2.3 Husserl and the Form of the Theories of Perception
2.4 Phenomenal Reality and Psychology of Perception in Metzger
2.5 Koffka on the Phenomenological Questions of Perception Science
2.6 Experience, Science and Philosophy in Köhler

3. The Variety of the Phenomenology of Perception
3.1 Meinong on Color Manifold
3.2 At the Borders of Conceptual and Experimental Issues: Brentano and Rubin
3.2.1 The Phenomenal Array of Experience: Boundaries and Continua in Brentano
3.2.2 Meaning in the Perceptual Field: Figure–Ground and Contour in Rubin
3.3 Katz: The Phenomenological Method and Color and Touch Modes of Appearances
3.4 Phenomenological Questions and Evidence
3.4.1 Wertheimer: the Perception of Movement and the “Natural” Organization
3.4.2 Goldmeier: the Phenomenal Content of Similarity and the Structure of Visual Objects
3.5 Experimental Phenomenology
3.5.1 Kanizsa: the Independence of Perception and the Autonomy of Vision Science
3.5.2 Bozzi: the Epistemological Foundation of Experimental Phenomenology

4. Physics and Geometry of Stimuli and Phenomenology.
4.1 The Stimulus Error. Unobservable Posits and the Variety of Data
4.1.1 Phenomenal Structures and Comparative Judgements
4.2 Perceptual and Geometrical Properties of Visual Figures
4.3 The Variety of Stimulus Errors
4.4 The Concomitant Variation of Stimuli and the Phenomenal Structures in Michotte
4.4.1 Phenomenal Mechanical Properties: Perception of Causality
4.5 Velocity and Time in the Perception of Movement
4.6 Perceptual Forms of Movement and Naive Physics
4.7 The Logic of Experimental Phenomenology

5. Phenomenal Structures of Space
5.1 The Phenomenal Space Continuum
5.2 The Self as Spatial Part: Meaning and Relations in Space
5.3 Forms of Visual Space
5.4 The Ordered Manifold of Depth
5.5 The Kinematics of Visual Things in Space
5.6 The Intrinsic Geometry of Phenomena
5.6.1 The Elements of the Geometry of Phenomena
5.7 The Coordinate Systems of Movements and Spatial Appearances
5.8 A Model of Perceptual Geometry

6. Phenomenal Structures of Time
6.1 Temporal Displacement and the Nature of Temporal Intervals
6.2 The Qualitative Order of Time
6.3 Temporal Grouping
6.4 The Structure of Phenomenal Permanence

7. Criticisms and Appraisal
7.1 The Phenomenological Meaning of Normal Illumination
7.2 Meta-theory and Empirical Science
7.3 Perceiving the Difference and the Phenomenal Basis of Judgements
7.3.1 Absolute Properties of Appearances
7.4 Phenomenological Commitments

Conclusions

Bibliography

Index

Readership

Scholars, graduate and postgraduate students interested in theoretical and experimental theories of perception, history of psychology, epistemology and philosophy of science.

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