The Jesuit investment in images, whether verbal or visual, virtual or actual, pictorial or poetic, rhetorical or exegetical, was strong and sustained, and may even be identified as one of the order’s defining characteristics. Although this interest in images has been richly documented by art historians, theatre historians, and scholars of the emblem, the question of Jesuit image theory has yet to be approached from a multi-disciplinary perspective that examines how the image was defined, conceived, produced, and interpreted within the various fields of learning cultivated by the Society: sacred oratory, pastoral instruction, scriptural exegesis, theology, collegiate pedagogy, poetry and poetics, etc. The papers published in this volume investigate the ways in which Jesuits reflected visually and verbally on the status and functions of the
imago, between the foundation of the order in 1540 and its suppression in 1773. Part I examines texts that purport explicitly to theorize about the
imago and to analyze its various forms and functions. Part II examines what one might call expressions of embedded image theory, that is, various instances where Jesuit authors and artists use images implicitly to explore the status and functions of such images as indices of image-making.
Contributors include Wietse de Boer, James Clifton, Ralph Dekoninck, Karl Enenkel, Pierre Antoine Fabre, David Graham, Agnès Guiderdoni, Anna Knaap, Walter Melion, Jeffrey Muller, Hilmar Pabel, Aline Smeesters, Andrea Torre, and Steffen Zierholz
WIETSE DE BOER is Professor of History at Miami University (Ohio). His research is focused on the history of the Italian Counter-Reformation. His recent and current projects explore the intersections between religion and sense experience. Publications on this theme include
Religion and the Senses in Early Modern Europe, co-edited with Christine Göttler.
KARL ENENKEL is Professor of Medieval Latin and Neo-Latin at the University of Münster. Previously he was Professor of Neo-Latin at the University of Leiden. He has published widely on international Humanism, early modern culture, paratexts, literary genres 1300-1600, Neo-Latin emblems, word and image relationships, and the history of scholarship and science.
WALTER MELION is Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Art History at Emory University. He has published extensively on Dutch and Flemish art and art theory of the 16th and 17th centuries, on Jesuit image-theory, on the relation between theology and aesthetics in the early modern period, and on the artist Hendrick Goltzius.
1 Introduction. The Jesuit Engagement with the Status and Functions of the Visual Image
Walter S. Melion
Part I. Jesuit Image Theory – Rheorical and Emblematic Treatises, and Theoretical Debates
2 THE EARLY JESUITS AND THE CATHOLIC DEBATE ABOUT SACRED IMAGES
Wietse De Boer
3 THE JESUIT ARS AND SCIENTIA SYMBOLICA. FROM RICHEOME AND SANDAEUS TO MASEN AND MÉNESTRIER
4 THE THEORY OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE. IN MAXIMILIAN VAN DER SANDT’S WRITINGS
5 WRITING ON THE BODY AND LOOKING THROUGH ITS WOUNDS: THE MNEMONIC METAPHOR OF THE STIGMATA IN EMANUELE TESAURO’S RHETORIC
6 CLAUDE-FRANÇOIS MÉNESTRIER: THE FOUNDER OF “EARLY MODERN GROUNDED THEORY”
7 Enargeia Fireworks: Jesuit Image Theory in Franciscus Neumayr’s Rhetorical Manual (Idea Rhetoricae, 1748) and His Tragedies
Karl A.E. Enenkel
Part II: Embedded Jesuit Image Theory
8 LIBELLUS PIARUM PRECUM (1575): ITERATIONS OF THE FIVE HOLY WOUNDS IN AN EARLY JESUIT PRAYERBOOK
Walter S. Melion
9 INTERIOR SIGHT IN PETER CANISIUS’ MEDITATIONS ON ADVENT
10 LE PACTE PRÉCAIRE DE L’IMAGE ET DE L’ECRIT DANS LE LIVRE ILLUSTRE D’EPOQUE MODERNE : LE CAS DE LA PEINTURE SPIRITUELLE (1611) DE LOUIS RICHEOME
Pierre Antoine Fabre
11 A VARIETY OF SPIRITUAL PLEASURES: ANTHONIS SALLAERT’S GLORIFICATION OF THE NAME OF JESUS
12 MARVELS AND MARBLES IN THE ANTWERP JESUIT CHURCH: HENDRICK VAN BALEN’S STONE PAINTINGS OF THE LIFE OF THE VIRGIN (1621)
Anna C. Knaap
13 THE SIMULACRA AVORUM IN JESUIT LATIN POEMS BY WALLIUS AND CARRARA: FROM VERGILIAN IMITATION TO SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY AND ART THEORY
14 'TO MAKE YOURSELF PRESENT'. JESUIT SACRED SPACE AS ENARGETIC SPACE
15 THE JESUIT STRATEGY OF ACCOMMODATION
all those interested in Jesuit Studies, History of Religion, Art history, History of Images, Image Theory, Poetics, Rhetoric, Catholic Reform, Counter-Reformation