Russia: From Proletarian Revolution to State-Capitalist Counter-Revolution

Selected writings


Russia: From Proletarian Revolution to State-Capitalist Counter-Revolution is a selection of writings by the Marxist-Humanist philosopher Raya Dunayevskaya, which begins with an examination of Lenin’s Hegel Notebooks, his philosophic preparation for proletarian revolution, followed by a section on “What Happens After” the revolution--the first years post 1917. Analyses of Trotsky, Stalin, Bukharin, and Luxemburg are presented.
A key section is “Russia’s Transformation into Opposite: The Theory of State-Capitalism.” Opposition to Russian state-capitalism such as the 1953 East Germany Revolt and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution are described. Mao’s China as another form of state-capitalism, as well as the Sino-Soviet conflict, is discussed. The study ends with a “battle of ideas” with other analyses of the Revolution and its aftermath.

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Raya Dunayevskaya, philosopher of Marxist-Humanism, was secretary to Leon Trotsky in exile in Mexico (1937-38). Her major writings include Marxism and Freedom (1957), Philosophy and Revolution (1973), and Rosa Luxemburg, Women’s Liberation, and Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution (1982).

Eugene Gogol was one of Raya Dunayevksya's secretaries during the 1980s. He is author of an intellectual biography Raya Dunayevskaya: Philosopher of Marxist-Humanism. Among his other writings are: Toward a Dialectic of Philosophy and Organization, and Utopia and the Dialectic in Latin American Liberation.

Franklin Dmitryev is co-Trustee of the Raya Dunayevskaya Memorial Fund and National Organizer of News and Letters Committees. He has published numerous articles on Dunayevskaya’s thought, Marxist-Humanist philosophy, environmental justice, climate change, and other social issues.
Editorial Note and Acknowledgements

Eugene Gogol, Terry Moon and Franklin Dmitryev
i. The Present Moment and the Russian Revolution
ii. 1914–1917: War and Revolution as Testing/Turning Points
iii. An American Revolutionary Born Out of the Russian Revolution
iv. The Form and Content of the Present Volume
The Philosophic Moment of Marxist-Humanism

Part 1. Philosophic Preparation for Revolution: The Significance of Lenin’s Hegel Notebooks

1. Translation of and Commentary on Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic”
Three Letters to C.L.R. James in the Process of Translating Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic
Notes on a Series of Lectures: Lenin on Hegel’s Science of Logic
Hegelian Leninism Telos Conference
First English Language Translation of Excerpts from Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic

2. Dunayevskaya’s Changed Perception of Lenin’s Philosophic Ambivalence, 1986–87
Prologue: Lenin as Seen in Excerpts from Dunayevskaya’s May 12, 1953
Letter on Hegel’s Absolutes
Letter to Non-Marxist Hegel Scholar Louis Dupré
Excerpts from Presentations, Letters, Notes

Part 2. On the Meaning of Lenin’s “Great Divide in Marxism”; Contrast with Trotsky, Bukharin, Luxemburg

3. Lenin on Self-determination of Nations and on Organization After His Philosophic Notebooks
The Break in Lenin’s Thought
What Was New on the Party Question in the Great Divide and After: The Relationship of the Masses to the Party
The Shock of Recognition and the Philosophic Ambivalence of Lenin

4. On Trotsky
Leon Trotsky as Man and as Theoretician

5. On Bukharin
Lenin vs. Bukharin: The Dialectic and Its Methodological Enemy, Abstract Revolutionism

6. On Luxemburg
Luxemburg and Lenin: Anti-war Internationalism; Contrasting Views on National Self-Determination—The “Junius” Pamphlet
Luxemburg’s View of the Russian Revolution

7. On Women Revolutionaries in Russia
In Memoriam: Natalia Sedova Trotsky. Role of Women in Revolution
Russia, February 1917; Germany, January 1919; and Rosa Luxemburg

Part 3. What Happens After?—Lenin 1917–1923

8. The Trade Union Debate and Lenin’s Will
The Trade Union Debate
Lenin and His New Concept: Party Work to Be Checked by Non-party Masses
Lenin’s Will

Part 4. Russia’s Transformation into Opposite: The Theory of State-Capitalism

9. The Development of State-Capitalist Theory in the 1940s
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a Capitalist Society
An Analysis of Russian Economy
Labor and Society
Is Russia Part of the Collectivist Epoch of Society?
A New Revision of Marxian Economics
The Nature of the Russian Economy

Part 5. From State-Capitalist Theory to Marxist-Humanism, 1950s–1980s

Introduction: From the State-Capitalist Tendency to the Birth of a Marxist-Humanist Organization—New Stage of Production, New Stage of Cognition, New Kind of Organization

10. On Stalin

11. The Beginning of the End of Russian Totalitarianism
East Germany, June 17, 1953
The Revolt in the Slave Labor Camps in Vorkuta
Spontaneity of Action and Organization of Thought: In Memoriam of the Hungarian Revolution

12. Post-Stalin Russia
Without a Past and Without a Future [On Khrushchev]
After the 20th Congress of the Russian Communist Party: Where is Russia Going?
Tito’s Turnabout
Andropov’s Ascendancy Reflects Final State of State-Capitalism’s Degeneracy
Reagan, Gorbachev in Iceland: All Things Fall Apart

13. On Mao’s China
Only Freedom Can Solve the Crisis
“Let 100 Flowers Bloom…But Only One Party Rule”
The “Philosophy” of the Yenan Period: Mao Perverts Lenin
Sino-Indian War Reveals Relationship of Ideology to State-Capitalist Imperialism
Indonesian Communism: A Case of World Communism’s Decomposition

14. The Sino-Soviet Split
Can There Be War between Russia and China? The Non-Viability of
Splintered World Communism

15. The Cuban Revolution and What Happens After?
The Cuban Revolution: The Year After
Ideology and Revolution: A Study of What Happens After…
The Double Tragedy of Che Guevara
Shortcut to Revolution or Long Road to Tragedy? On Regis Debray’s Revolution in the Revolution

16. State-Capitalism as a “New Stage of World Capitalism” vs. The Humanism of Marx
The Humanism of Marx is the Basic Foundation for Anti-Stalinism Today
The New Stage of World Capitalism: State-Capitalism
“Culture,” Science and State-Capitalism
State-Capitalism and the Dialectic

17. Battle of Ideas
Milovan Djilas’ New Class
Intellectuals in the Age of State-Capitalism [On Herbert Marcuse’s Soviet Marxism]
Western Intellectuals Help K[hrushchev], Inc. Rebury Lenin’s
Philosophic Legacy [On Gustav A. Wetter, David Joravsky, George Lichtheim, Eugene Kamenka]
Footnote on the Detractors of Lenin [On Cornelius Castoriadis (aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan)]
Lukács’ Philosophic Dimension
Tony Cliff Degrades Lenin as Theoretician

Academics, institutions and departments, as well as social activists, interested in Russian history, revolutionary social transformation, dialectical philosophy, Marxism and Communism, particularly on this centenary of the Russian Revolution.