Russia: From Proletarian Revolution to State-Capitalist Counter-Revolution

Selected writings


Russia: From Proletarian Revolution to State-Capitalist Counter-Revolution is a selection of writings by the Marxist-Humanist philosopher Raya Dunayevskaya, which begins with an examination of Lenin’s Hegel Notebooks, his philosophic preparation for proletarian revolution, followed by a section on “What Happens After” the revolution--the first years post 1917. Analyses of Trotsky, Stalin, Bukharin, and Luxemburg are presented. A key section is “Russia’s Transformation into Opposite: The Theory of State-Capitalism.” Opposition to Russian state-capitalism such as the 1953 East Germany Revolt and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution are described. Mao’s China as another form of state-capitalism, as well as the Sino-Soviet conflict, is discussed. The study ends with a “battle of ideas” with other analyses of the Revolution and its aftermath.
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Biographical Note

Raya Dunayevskaya, philosopher of Marxist-Humanism, was secretary to Leon Trotsky in exile in Mexico (1937-38). Her major writings include Marxism and Freedom (1957), Philosophy and Revolution (1973), and Rosa Luxemburg, Women’s Liberation, and Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution (1982). Eugene Gogol was one of Raya Dunayevksya's secretaries during the 1980s. He is author of an intellectual biography Raya Dunayevskaya: Philosopher of Marxist-Humanism. Among his other writings are: Toward a Dialectic of Philosophy and Organization, and Utopia and the Dialectic in Latin American Liberation. Franklin Dmitryev is co-Trustee of the Raya Dunayevskaya Memorial Fund and National Organizer of News and Letters Committees. He has published numerous articles on Dunayevskaya’s thought, Marxist-Humanist philosophy, environmental justice, climate change, and other social issues.

Table of contents

Editorial Note and Acknowledgements ... ix Introduction ... 1 Eugene Gogol, Terry Moon and Franklin Dmitryev i The Present Moment and the Russian Revolution ii 1914–1917: War and Revolution as Testing/Turning Points iii An American Revolutionary Born Out of the Russian Revolution iv The Form and Content of the Present Volume The Philosophic Moment of Marxist-Humanism Part 1 Philosophic Preparation for Revolution: The Significance of Lenin’s Hegel Notebooks 1 Translation of and Commentary on Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic” ... 21 Three Letters to C.L.R. James in the Process of Translating Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic” Notes on a Series of Lectures: Lenin on Hegel’s Science of Logic Hegelian Leninism Telos Conference First English Language Translation of Excerpts from Lenin’s “Abstract of Hegel’s Science of Logic2 Dunayevskaya’s Changed Perception of Lenin’s Philosophic Ambivalence, 1986–87 ... 109 Prologue: Lenin as Seen in Excerpts from Dunayevskaya’s May 12, 1953 Letter on Hegel’s Absolutes Letter to Non-Marxist Hegel Scholar Louis Dupré Excerpts from Presentations, Letters, Notes In Lieu of Minutes of News and Letters Committees Resident Editorial Board Meeting of August 5, 1986, on Executive Session Presentation by Dunayevskaya to the Resident Editorial Board on December 1, 1986 “The Year of Only 8 Months,” Jan 3, 1987 Talking to Myself Document, January 21, 1987 Presentation on the Dialectics of Organization and Philosophy, June 1, 1987 Part 2 On the Meaning of Lenin’s “Great Divide in Marxism”; Contrast with Trotsky, Bukharin, Luxemburg 3 Lenin on Self-determination of Nations and on Organization After His Philosophic Notebooks ... 127 The Break in Lenin’s Thought What Was New on the Party Question in the Great Divide and After: The Relationship of the Masses to the Party The Shock of Recognition and the Philosophic Ambivalence of Lenin 4 On Trotsky ... 142 Leon Trotsky as Man and as Theoretician 5 On Bukharin ... 160 Lenin vs. Bukharin: The Dialectic and Its Methodological Enemy, Abstract Revolutionism 6 On Luxemburg 167 Luxemburg and Lenin: Anti-war Internationalism; Contrasting Views on National Self-Determination—The “Junius” Pamphlet Luxemburg’s View of the Russian Revolution 7 On Women Revolutionaries in Russia ... 174 In Memoriam: Natalia Sedova Trotsky. Role of Women in Revolution Russia, February 1917; Germany, January 1919; and Rosa Luxemburg Part 3 What Happens After?—Lenin 1917–1923 8 The Trade Union Debate and Lenin’s Will ... 187 The Trade Union Debate Lenin and His New Concept: Party Work to Be Checked by Non-party Masses Lenin’s Will Part 4 Russia’s Transformation into Opposite: The Theory of State-Capitalism 9 The Development of State-Capitalist Theory in the 1940s ... 207 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a Capitalist Society An Analysis of Russian Economy Labor and Society Is Russia Part of the Collectivist Epoch of Society? A New Revision of Marxian Economics The Nature of the Russian Economy Part 5 From State-Capitalist Theory to Marxist-Humanism, 1950s–1980s Introduction: From the State-Capitalist Tendency to the Birth of a Marxist-Humanist Organization—New Stage of Production, New Stage of Cognition, New Kind of Organization ... 313 10 On Stalin ... 317 11 The Beginning of the End of Russian Totalitarianism ... 325 East Germany, June 17, 1953 The Revolt in the Slave Labor Camps in Vorkuta Spontaneity of Action and Organization of Thought: In Memoriam of the Hungarian Revolution 12 Post-Stalin Russia ... 333 Without a Past and Without a Future [On Khrushchev] After the 20th Congress of the Russian Communist Party: Where is Russia Going? Tito’s Turnabout Andropov’s Ascendancy Reflects Final State of State-Capitalism’s Degeneracy Reagan, Gorbachev in Iceland: All Things Fall Apart 13 On Mao’s China ... 354 Only Freedom Can Solve the Crisis “Let 100 Flowers Bloom…But Only One Party Rule” The “Philosophy” of the Yenan Period: Mao Perverts Lenin Sino-Indian War Reveals Relationship of Ideology to State-Capitalist Imperialism Indonesian Communism: A Case of World Communism’s Decomposition 14 The Sino-Soviet Split ... 378 Can There Be War between Russia and China? The Non-Viability of State-Capitalism Splintered World Communism 15 The Cuban Revolution and What Happens After? ... 398 The Cuban Revolution: The Year After Ideology and Revolution: A Study of What Happens After… The Double Tragedy of Che Guevara Shortcut to Revolution or Long Road to Tragedy? On Regis Debray’s Revolution in the Revolution 16 State-Capitalism as a “New Stage of World Capitalism” vs. The Humanism of Marx ... 416 The Humanism of Marx is the Basic Foundation for Anti-Stalinism Today The New Stage of World Capitalism: State-Capitalism “Culture,” Science and State-Capitalism State-Capitalism and the Dialectic 17 Battle of Ideas ... 438 Milovan Djilas’ New Class Intellectuals in the Age of State-Capitalism [On Herbert Marcuse’s Soviet Marxism] Western Intellectuals Help K[hrushchev], Inc. Rebury Lenin’s Philosophic Legacy [On Gustav A. Wetter, David Joravsky, George Lichtheim, Eugene Kamenka] Footnote on the Detractors of Lenin [On Cornelius Castoriadis (aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan)] Lukács’ Philosophic Dimension Tony Cliff Degrades Lenin as Theoretician Bibliography ... 471 Index ... 480


Academics, institutions and departments, as well as social activists, interested in Russian history, revolutionary social transformation, dialectical philosophy, Marxism and Communism, particularly on this centenary of the Russian Revolution.