The Seal Hunt

Cultures, Economies and Legal Regimes

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In The Seal Hunt: Cultures, Economies and Legal Regimes, Nikolas Sellheim offers a deep analysis of the seal hunt worldwide. He engages on a journey from the northern to the southern hemisphere and explores how the seal hunt has shaped cultures all over the world up to this day. By analysing the different national and international regimes dealing with the seal hunt, Sellheim shows how the perception of the seal and the seal hunt has changed over time and space. Focusing on the European Union and the World Trade Organization, the volume offers an account on how opposition towards the seal hunt has found its way onto the international spheres of governance and trade.
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Biographical Note

Nikolas Sellheim, LL.D. (2016), University of Lapland, is postdoctoral researcher at the Polar Cooperation Research Centre, Kobe University, Japan. He has published extensively on the seal hunt, Arctic governance and Arctic social sciences.

Table of contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Introduction
 1 Where are we on Seals?
 2 Seals and Humans: A Troubled Relationship?
 3 A Brief Introduction to Seals
 4 The Characters of Law
  4.1  Law and Knowledge
  4.2  Law as Expression
  4.3  Are Objectivity and Expression in Law Adversaries?
5 A Short Explanation of the Content of the Book

2 Cultures and Economies
 1 Introduction
 2 The Northern Hemisphere
  2.1  Northern Atlantic Ocean
   2.1.1. Eastern Canadian Seal Hunts
   2.1.2. Iceland
  2.2  Inuit Seal Hunts in the Davis Strait
   2.2.1 Historical Overview
  2.3  North Pacific
   2.3.1. The Pribilof Islands
   2.3.2. The Bering Sea and Bering Strait
  2.4  Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan
   2.4.1. Historical Overview
   2.4.2. Contemporary Issues
  2.5  Jan Mayen, Barents Sea and White Sea
  2.6  Baltic Sea and North Sea
   2.6.1. Historical Overview
   2.6.2. Contemporary Issues
  2.7  Lake Sealing
 3 The Southern Hemisphere
  3.1  South Georgia
   3.1.1. Historical Overview
   3.1.2. Contemporary Issues
  3.2  South America
  3.3  Bass Strait, New Zealand and Macquarie Island
   3.3.1. Historical Overview
   3.3.2. Contemporary Issues
  3.4  South, Southwest and Southeast Africa
 4 Conclusion

3 Legal Regimes
 1 Introduction
 2 Defunct Multilateral Regimes
  2.1  The North Atlantic
   2.1.1 The Jan Mayen Seal Fishery Treaty, 1875
   2.1.2 Finnish-Soviet Sealing Regimes in the Northeast Atlantic, 1922–1944
   2.1.3 International Convention for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 1949—1978
   2.1.4 Agreement on Measures for Regulating the Catch and Conserving Stocks of Seals in the Northeastern Part of the Atlantic Ocean, 1957
   2.1.5 Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Norway on Sealing and the Conservation of the Seal Stocks in the Northwest Atlantic, 1971
   2.2 The Bering Sea Fur Seal Regimes until 1984
   2.2.1 The 1911 Fur Seal Convention
   2.2.2 The 1957 Interim Convention on Conservation of North Pacific Fur Seals
  2.3  Lake Sealing
 3 Current Multilateral Regimes
   3.1 International Legal Regimes
   3.1.1 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( unclos ), 1982
   3.1.2 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna ( cites ), 1979
   3.1.3 Convention on Migratory Species ( cms , Bonn Convention), 1979
   3.1.4 Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats (Bern Convention), 1979
   3.1.5 Convention on Biological Diversity ( cbd ), 1992
   3.2 International Organisations and Regional Regimes
   3.2.1 Atlantic Ocean
   3.2.2 Baltic Sea
   3.2.3 Mediterranean Sea
   3.2.4 Antarctica
  3.3 A Short Discussion on Bi- and Multilateral Agreements
 4 National Legislation
  4.1  Northern Hemisphere
   4.1.1 Canada
   4.1.2 United States
   4.1.3 Russia
   4.1.4 Norway
   4.1.5 Iceland
   4.1.6 Denmark / Greenland
   4.1.7 Sweden
   4.1.8 Finland
   4.1.9 Estonia
   4.1.10 Japan
   4.2 Southern Hemisphere
   4.2.1 Falkland Islands and South Georgia
   4.2.2 Namibia and South Africa
   4.2.3 Uruguay
   4.2.4 Argentina
   4.2.5 Peru
   4.2.6 Chile
   4.2.7 Ecuador
   4.2.8 Australia
   4.2.9 New Zealand
   4.3 A Short Discussion on National Legislation
 5 Conclusion

4 The European Union and the Seal Hunt
 1 Introduction
 2 The Seal Pups Directive 1983
 3 The EU Seal Regime
  3.1  The Drafting History of the EU Seal Regime
   3.1.1 The Declaration of the European Parliament
   3.1.2 The Seal Hunt and the Council of Europe
   3.1.3 The European Food Safety Authority
   3.1.4 cowi
   3.1.5 The Legislative Proposal
   3.1.6 The imco Report
   3.1.7 Banning the Trade in Seal Products
   3.2 Adjudicating the Seal Regime
  3.3  Problems, Politics and Protests
   3.3.1 Stakeholders
   3.3.2 The Effects of the EU Seal Regime
4 Conclusion

5 Public Morality, International Trade Law and the Seal Hunt
 1 Introduction
 2 The Blurry Concept of “Public Morality”
 3 International Trade Law and the “Moral Concern”
  3.1  The Emerging “Moral Exception” in International Trade Law
  3.2  The “Moral Concern” and the Trade in Seal Products
 4 Animal Welfare as a European Moral Standard
 5 An Inner-European View on Public Morality
 6 Conclusion

6 Concluding Thoughts

Bibliography
Literature Cited
Legislation, Policy-Documents and Case-Law Cited

Index

Readership

All interested in the histories and contemporary statuses of cultures and legal regimes surrounding the hunt for seals worldwide, and anyone with a wider interest in the European Union, international trade law, indigenous and local rights.

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