The 1624 Tumult of Mexico in Perspective (c.1620–1650)

Authority and Conflict Resolution in the Iberian Atlantic

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In The 1624 Tumult of Mexico in Perspective Angela Ballone offers, for the first time, a comprehensive study of an understudied period of Mexican early modern history. By looking at the mandates of three viceroys who, to varying degrees, participated in the events surrounding the Tumult, the book discusses royal authority from a transatlantic perspective that encompasses both sides of the Iberian Atlantic. Considering the similarities and tensions that coexisted in the Iberian Atlantic, Ballone offers a thorough reassessment of current historiography on the Tumult proving that, despite the conflicts and arguments underlying the disturbances, there was never any intention to do away with the king’s authority in New Spain.
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Biographical Note

Angela Ballone, Ph.D. (2012), University of Liverpool, works as a Researcher at the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History of Frankfurt am Main. Previously, she has been Fellow at the Deutsches Historisches Institut in Rome (2016) and the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa (2014–2015). She is currently working on the project ‘Translating Solórzano from Within’ on the jurist Juan de Solórzano Pereira (1575–1655).

Table of contents

General Editor’s Foreword
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations
Abbreviations
Transcription System
The Tumult in Brief

Introduction
The Scale of the Mexican Disturbances
Royal Authority as a Tool of Integration in the Iberian Atlantic
Historiographical Approaches to the Tumult of 1624

Rethinking the Tumult in Perspective



1 Theatre of the Disturbances
Windows onto the Iberian Atlantic World
Metropolis of the New World
The Composite Nature of Mexican Urban Population
The Broad Urban Scenario
Royal Authority in Flesh and Blood

2 Pre-Dating the Tumult
The Mexican Audiencia at the Time of Guadalcazar
Guadalcazar: el Buen Rey or a Despotic Viceroy?
Historiography on Guadalcazar’s Mandates
From Mexico to Lima
The Logistics of Communication in the Iberian Atlantic

3 A Viceroy in an Age of Decline
Royal Appointment by Philip III
Gelves’s First Entry in Mexico City
First Impressions in the New World
Positive Feedback to the Council
Reforming Local Custom and Patronising Municipal Institutions
Supervising the Administration of Justice
The First Arrest of Oidor Vergara Gaviria
Old World Casuistry and New Instructions from Spain

4 The Two Heads of the Viceroyalty
The Administration of the Faith: A Sensitive Topic
Idyll between Archbishop and Viceroy
Deterioration of the Varaez Case
Two Majesties in Conflict
Juntas in Spanish America
Authority from Theory to Practice
The Cathedral of Mexico and the Scale of Conflicts
New Year and the Eve of the Tumult
The Beginning of the End
Reactions to the Exile

5 Storming the Viceregal Palace
Royal Authority Performed in the Mexican Zócalo
The King Arrested and the Pope Exiled
Sacred Objects in the Battlefield
A Heretic Viceroy in Mexico City?
‘Long Live to the King and Death to Heretics!’
The Insurgents’ Requests
From Fire to Firearms
The Regency
The Viceroy is Missing
The Tumult is Over
Who were These Insurgents Anyway?

Illustrations




The Long Road to Resolution



6 The Day After
Comuneros of New Spain?
The Pillage of the Palace
‘No God, nor King, nor Judges!’
The Mexican Delegation
The Viceroy Besieged
Justice and Power Performed by the Audiencia
Sparkling the Transatlantic Debate
A New Viceroy in an Age of Crisis
Restoration of Viceregal Authority
Two Viceroys, Two Schools of Politics
The Archbishop of Mexico in Europe

7 Tools of Control from the Metropolitan Court
Preparations for the General Inspection
The Beginning of the Inspection
Gelves’s Judicial Examination
Viceroys’ Authority above Everything Else
The Second Arrest of Oidor Vergara Gaviria
Mexico City under Pressure Again
The End of Gelves’s Juicio de Residencia (in Mexico)
Unsettling Metropolitan Considerations about the Inspection

8 From the Inspection to the General Pardon
Another Extraordinary Junta at the Court of Philip IV
The Mexican Pardon in Perspective
The New Archbishop of Mexico
Restoration of Religious Authority
The Edict of the Pardon
The New Inspection
Different Interpretations of the Pardon
More Tensions in Mexico City
The Resilience of the Gelvista Party

9 Metropolitan Déjà Vu
Two Heads in Opposition, Again
‘There is Only One Viceroy in New Spain!’
Assessing the Junta del Tumulto de México
The Members of the Junta
The Hidden ‘Life’ of the Junta del Tumulto
An Ongoing Discussion outside the Junta
Rethinking Metropolitan Perceptions of Mexican Politics
The Viceroys’ Sentences

Conclusions

Appendix: A Fructibus Eorum Cognoscentis Eos (México, 1629)
Glossary
Select Bibliography
Index

Readership

All those interested in the history of the early modern Iberian Atlantic, the 1624 Tumult of Mexico, Viceregal and Court Studies, techniques of conflict resolution and Imperial Spain.

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