Piracy and the Origins of Universal Jurisdiction

On Stranger Tides?


In Piracy and the Origins of Universal Jurisdiction, Mark Chadwick relates a colourful account of how and why piracy on the high seas came to be considered an international crime, subject to the principle of universal jurisdiction prosecutable by any State in any circumstances.

Merging international and domestic law, history, literature, and sociology, the author weaves an intricate tale that reveals the pirate to be the original “enemy of mankind” and forerunner of today’s international criminals: those who commit genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and aggression. In so doing, Mark Chadwick proposes a convincing reappraisal of the pirate’s role in the crystallisation of international criminal law, bringing much-needed clarity to a disputed area of international legal history.

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Mark Chadwick holds an LLM (2008) and PhD (2016) from the University of Nottingham and is a Lecturer in Law at Nottingham Trent University.
1Of Pirates and Nazis:Introducing the “Piracy Analogy”
 1.1Defining Key Terms
 1.2Understanding the “Piracy Analogy”: Core Themes and Questions
  1.2.1 Beyond Piracy: The Emergence and Growth of “New” Universal Jurisdiction
  1.2.2 Questioning Universal Jurisdiction
  1.2.3 The Continued Relevance of the “Piracy Analogy”
 1.3Scope, Methodology and Structure
 1.4On Stranger Tides
2 Crime of the Ancient Mariner: Legal and Political Perspectives on Piracy in Antiquity
 2.1Roman Hegemony and the Downfall of “Piracy”
  2.1.1 Heroes and Antagonists: Early Histories of “Piracy”
  2.1.2 The Rise of Commerce
  2.1.3 The Ascendance of Territory
  2.1.4 Law on Piracy
  2.1.5 War on Piracy
 2.2The “Ciceronian Paradigm” of Piracy
 2.3Roman Legacies: Conclusions from the Original Annihilation of Piracy
  2.3.1 History’s Battle Lines
  2.3.2 A Roman Conception of Universal Jurisdiction?
3 Dimensions of Piracy : States, Privateers and Hostes Humani Generis
 3.1Authorised Plunder: Deconstructing the “Privateer”
 3.2Beyond the State: Defining and Responding to Piracy
  3.2.1 Pirate Politics and Society
  3.2.2 Responding to Piracy: Law Beyond Territory
  3.2.3 Lord Coke and “Hostes Humani Generis”
4 The Philosophical Foundations of Universal Jurisdiction: Piracy in the Works of Alberico Gentili and Hugo Grotius
 4.1Defining the Pirate
  4.1.1 The Pirate and the State in Gentili’s De Jure Belli Libri Tres
  4.1.2 Piracy, Commerce and the Free Sea in Grotius’ De Jure Praedae
  4.1.3 “Confederated only to do Mischief”: The Pirate in Grotius’ De Jure Belli ac Pacis
 4.2Responding to Piracy
  4.2.1 “The Common Enemies of all Mankind”: Implementing the “Gentili Divide”
  4.2.2 Hugo Grotius and the Philosophical Underpinnings of Universal Jurisdiction
5 The Ballad of Captain Kidd: The Fall of Piracy and the Rise of Universal Jurisdiction (1625–1856)
 5.1Piracy “Beyond the Line”: The Age of the Buccaneers (1625–1690)
 5.2Captain Kidd and the Anti-Piracy “Revolution” of the 1690s
 5.3The “Golden Age” of Piracy (1700–1730)
 5.4Defeating Piracy: The Legacy of Captain Kidd (1730–1855)
 5.5The Demise of Privateering
6 Rationalising Universal Jurisdiction: The Provenance of the “Piracy Analogy”
 6.1Piracy as a “Heinous” Offence
  6.1.1 Libertas Commerciorum: Universal Jurisdiction, Piracy and the Commercial Imperative
  6.1.2 Piracy’s Indiscriminate Effect
  6.1.3 “Beyond all Borders”
  6.1.4 Consensus
 6.2Against “Heinousness”
  6.2.1 “Reverse Heinousness”
  6.2.2 Forum Conveniens
7 Uncertain Waters: Combating Piracy in the 21st Century
 7.1The Modern Legal Framework
  7.1.1 Defining Piracy
  7.1.2 Universal Jurisdiction
  7.1.3 Duty to Cooperate
  7.1.4 Issues Arising
 7.2“Universalising” Universal Jurisdiction over Piracy
8 Ancient Promise or False Hope? The Legacy of the Piracy Analogy
 8.1Ancient Promise? The Piracy Analogy and “New” Universal Jurisdiction
 8.2False Hope? The Limitations of Universal Jurisdiction
  8.2.1 The Shape of “New” Universal Jurisdiction: The Position in International Law
  8.2.2 W(h)ither Universal Jurisdiction? Recognising and Overcoming Issues
9 On Stranger Tides: Conclusion
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