Few subjects have generated more argument in early medieval, Byzantine, and Orthodox history than Iconoclasm. Supposedly for more than a century the Orthodox Church and Byzantium were wracked by controversy over religious figural imagery, culminating in 843 in the establishment of icon veneration as a fundamental Orthodox practice. In this multidisciplinary Companion to Byzantine Iconoclasm, twelve contributors set the controversy in context and critically examine the key debates: what was the argument about? How much destruction and persecution were there? What caused and fuelled the controversy? What links, if any, were there to events in the Islamic Caliphate and the Latin West? And how can we use our contested literary and material sources to offer answers to these questions?
Contributors: Benjamin Anderson, Marie-France Auzépy, Sabine Feist, Mike Humphreys, Robin M. Jensen, Dirk Krausmüller, Andrew Louth, Ken Parry, Richard Price, Christian C. Sahner, and Jesse W. Torgerson.
Mike Humphreys, Ph.D. (2012, University of Cambridge) is a researcher and lecturer at that university. He has published widely on Byzantine history, including Law, Power, and Imperial Ideology in the Iconoclast Era, c.680–850 (OUP: 2015).
List of Illustrations
List of Abbreviations
Notes on Contributors
Contexts, Controversies, and Developing Perspectives Mike Humphreys
PART 1 Images before Iconoclasm
1 Figural Images in Christian Thought and Practice before ca. 500
Robin M. Jensen
2 Images in Byzantine Thought and Practice ca. 500–700
4 Acta, Treatises, and Hagiography
5 Material Culture
PART 3 Byzantine Iconoclasm in Action
6 First Iconoclasm, ca. 700–80
7 The Iconophile Intermission and Second Iconoclasm, 780–843
PART 4 The Theology of Byzantine Iconoclasm
8 The Theological Argument about Images in the 8th Century
9 The Theological Argument about Images in the 9th Century
10 The Problem of the Holy
Iconoclasm, Saints, Relics, and Monks Dirk Krasmüller
PART 5 Iconoclasm East and West
11 Images and Iconoclasm in Islam, ca. 600–850
Christian C. Sahner
12 Iconoclasm, Images, and the West
Thomas F. X. Noble
Everyone interested in Byzantium, Orthodox Christianity, and the Early Middle Ages, and anyone concerned with the history and theology of religious imagery and its use in religious practice. Keywords: icons, iconoclasm, orthodoxy, Byzantium, Christian art history, theology of art, Islam and images.