Speech and Thought in Latin War Narratives

Words of Warriors

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In Speech and Thought in Latin War Narratives, Suzanne Adema offers linguistic and narratological tools to analyse and interpret narratorial choices in speech and thought representation in Latin narratives. Her approach combines insights from (cognitive) linguistic and narratological theories and has been tested and adjusted through corpus based research (Caesar, Vergil, Sallust).
The approach is a useful tool to unveil rhetorical uses of speech and thought representation in Latin war narrative by means of close readings of Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum 1 and 7, and Vergil’s Aeneid 11 and 12. Focusing on the attitudes of the narrators towards war, Adema provides new insights into these texts and offers linguistic and narratological contributions to literary and historical discussions about the Bellum Gallicum and the Aeneid.
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Biographical Note

Suzanne Adema is an Assistant Professor (University of Amsterdam/Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam). Her publications are characterized by a combined narratological and linguistic approach to Latin epic and historiography. She coordinates a research project on Greek and Latin Learning and Instruction.

Table of contents

Acknowledgements
1 Speech and Thought Representation in Latin War Narrative
 1.1 Approaches to Forms and Functions of Speech and Thought Representation
 1.2 Approach and Outline of This Book
2 Linguistic Forms of Speech and Thought Representation in Latin Narrative
 2.1 Medium
 2.2 Syntactic Embedding
  2.2.1 Direct Discourse
  2.2.2 Indirect Discourse
  2.2.3 Mentioned Discourse
  2.2.4 Free Indirect Discourse
  2.2.5 Results
 2.3 Linguistic Choices and Deictic Centres in Indirect and Other Non-Direct Discourse
  2.3.1 Finite Verb Forms
   2.3.1.1 Person
   2.3.1.2 Mood
   2.3.1.3 Tense
  2.3.2 Referential Expressions
   2.3.2.1 Times and Places
   2.3.2.2 Persons and Objects
  2.3.3 Mimetic Elements
  2.3.4 Discourse Organization
 2.4 Conclusion: A Scale Model of Non-Direct Speech and Thought Representation?
3 Narrative Techniques and Representations of Speech and Thought
 3.1 Pace
 3.2 Order: Analepsis, Prolepsis and Seeds
 3.3 Space
 3.4 Characterization
 3.5 Explanation of Actions
 3.6 ‘What It’s Like’ for Characters (and Narratees)
 3.7 Primary Narrative Presented by Secondary Narrators
 3.8 Conclusion
4 Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 1 and 7
 4.1 Overview of Representations of Speech and Thought
 4.2 Close Reading of Speech and Thought Representations in Bellum Gallicum 1
  4.2.1 Gaul and Orgetorix, Caes. Gall. 1.1-4.3
  4.2.2 The Initial Phase of the War against the Helvetians, Caes. Gall.1.5-16
  4.2.3 Dumnorix, Caes. Gall. 1.17-20
  4.2.4 Victory Over the Helvetians, Caes. Gall. 1.21-29
  4.2.5 The Initial Phase of the War against Ariovistus, Caes. Gall. 1.30-47
  4.2.6 Victory over Ariovistus, Caes. Gall. 1.48-54
 4.3 Close Reading of Speech and Thought Representations in Bellum Gallicum 7
  4.3.1 Collective Gallic Rebellion, Caes. Gall. 7.1-3
  4.3.2 Rise of Vercingetorix, Caes. Gall. 7.4-21
  4.3.3 The Battle of Bourges, Caes. Gall. 7.22-31
  4.3.4 The Haeduans, Part 1, Caes. Gall. 7.32-35
  4.3.5 Gergovia, Part 1, Caes. Gall. 7.35-36
  4.3.6 The Haeduans, Part 2, Caes. Gall. 7.37-40
  4.3.7 Gergovia, Part 2, Caes. Gall. 7.41
  4.3.8 The Haeduans, Part 3, Caes. Gall. 7.42.1-43.3
  4.3.9 The Battle of Gergovia/ Gergovia, Part 4, Caes. Gall. 7.43.4-53
  4.3.10 The Haeduans, Part 4, Caes. Gall. 7.54.1-56.3
  4.3.11 Labienus, Caes. Gall. 7.57-62
  4.3.12 Prelude to the Battle of Alesia, Caes. Gall. 7.63-67
  4.3.13 The Battle of Alesia, Caes. Gall. 7.68-90
 4.4 Conclusion: Speech and Thought in Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum
  4.4.1 An Efficient and Strategic Narrator
  4.4.2 Thoughts
  4.4.3 Direct Speech
  4.4.4 Non-Direct Representations of Speech and Thought
  4.4.5 Alternation of Forms within an Episode
  4.4.6 War as an Efficient and Manageable Procedure
  4.4.7 War as Necessary
  4.4.8 Caesar’s Celeritas, Diplomatic Approach and Strategic Insight
 4.5 Appendices
  4.5.1 Speech and Thought in the Episodes of Bellum Gallicum, Book 1 and 7
  4.5.2 Speaking and Thinking Characters
5 Vergil, Aeneid 11 and 12
 5.1 Overview of Representations of Speech and Thought
 5.2 Close Reading of Speech and Thought Representations in Aeneid 11
  5.2.1 The Corpses of Mezentius and Pallas, Verg. Aen. 11.1-99
  5.2.2 The Latin Embassy, Verg. Aen. 11.100-138
  5.2.3 Euander’s Farewell to Pallas, Verg. Aen. 11.139-181
  5.2.4 Burials, Verg. Aen. 11.182-224
  5.2.5 The Latin War Council, Verg. Aen. 11.225-375
  5.2.6 Turnus and Turnus’ Speech in the Latin War Council, Verg. Aen. 11.376-446
  5.2.7 Preparing for Battle, Verg. Aen. 11.447-497
  5.2.8 Camilla Part One: Her Youth, Verg. Aen. 11.498-596
  5.2.9 Camilla Part Two: Battles and Death, Verg. Aen.11.597-895
  5.2.10 Aeneas and Turnus Return to the Battlefield, Verg. Aen. 11.896-915
 5.3 Close Reading of Speech and Thought Representations in Aeneid 12
  5.3.1 Turnus Wants a Duel, Verg. Aen. 12.1-80
  5.3.2 Preparations for the Duel, Verg. Aen. 12.81-133
  5.3.3 Juno and Juturna, Verg. Aen. 12.134-160
  5.3.4 Sacrifices and the Rutulian Change of Heart, Verg. Aen. 12.161-256
  5.3.5 Battle, Verg. Aen. 12.257-382
  5.3.6 Aeneas Wounded, Verg. Aen. 12.383-440
  5.3.7 Battle Continues, Verg. Aen. 12.441-592
  5.3.8 Amata’s Death, Verg. Aen. 12.593-611
  5.3.9 Turnus Returns to Battle, Verg. Aen. 12.614-696
  5.3.10 Duel, Part One, Verg. Aen. 12.697-790
  5.3.11 Juno, Jupiter, Juturna, Verg. Aen. 12.791-886
  5.3.12 Duel, Part Two, Verg. Aen. 12.887-952
 5.4 Conclusion: Speech and Thought in Vergil’s Aeneid
  5.4.1 The Necessity of War: Rome
  5.4.2 War as a Means to Obtain Glory: Camilla
  5.4.3 The Horrors and Toils of War for its Participants
 5.5 Appendices
  5.5.1 Speech and Thought in the Episodes of Aeneid, Book 11 and 12
  5.5.2 Speaking and Thinking Characters
6 Conclusion
 6.1 Forms of Speech and Thought Representations in Latin War Narratives
 6.2 Free Indirect Discourse in Latin War Narratives
 6.3 Functions of Speech and Thought Representation in Latin War Narratives
 6.4 War as Something You Can Plan in Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum
 6.5 The Horrors of War as One of the Attitudes towards War in Vergil’s Aeneid
 6.6 Words of Warriors in Latin War Narratives
Bibliography
Index Locorum
Index Rerum

Readership

All interested in war ideology and narrative techniques in Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum and Vergil’s Aeneid, and anyone concerned with forms and narrative functions of speech and thought representation.