Waiting for the End of the World

European Dimensions, 950–1200

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The French president Charles de Gaulle spoke of a Europe “from the Atlantic to the Urals”. Europe was spatially formed with these topographic parameters from the late 10th century onwards, with the massive Christianization of its inhabitants. At that time, however, all three monotheistic religions already had a steady presence there. Could such a macro-space be thought-and-narrated from a macro-perspective, in view of its medieval past? This has already been done through common ʻdenominatorsʻ such as the Migration Period, wars, trade, spread of Christianity. Could it also be seen through a common religious-philosophical and spiritual phenomenon – the Anticipation of the End of the world among Christians, Muslims, and Jews? This book gives a positive answer to the last question.

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Tsvetelin Stepanov, D.Sc. (2015), St Kliment Ohridski University, is Professor in Medieval History and Culture. He has published monographs and articles on Bulgaria, the ‘Steppe Empire’, and Byzantium, including The Bulgars and the Steppe Empire in the Early Middle Ages (Brill, 2010).
Preface: How the Idea for This Book Came About
Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations

Introduction

1 European Dimensions of the Anticipation of the End of Times: Texts. Contexts. Real Places and Symbolic Topoi
 1.1 Expectations for the End of Times in the Jewish Milieu, 10th–12th Centuries
 1.2 Expectations for the End of Times in Western Europe
 1.3 Expectations for the End of Times in Byzantium
 1.4 Expectations for the End of Times in Kievan Rus’

2 Topography of the Evil Forces before the End of Times: European Dimensions
 2.1 The Question of the Sources
 2.2 Genealogy of Some of the Topoi
 2.3 Later Development of the Topos of the Direction of the Evil Forces’ Invasions in the 10th–12th Centuries

3 Bulgarian Dimensions of the Anticipation of the End of Times: Texts. Contexts. Real Places and Symbolic Topoi
 3.1 Danube Bulgaria: ‘Texts’ of Word and Image
 3.2 Topography and Names of the Evil Forces before the End of Times in the Notions of the Danube Bulgarians
 3.3 Beginning and End of Tsardom: Bulgarian ‘Responses’ to the Expectation of the End of Times

Conclusion
Bibliography
Illustrations
Index
All interested in the issues surrounding the anticipation of the End of Times in a pan-European perspective, and anyone seeking a better understanding of them in 950–1200, in particular.