New Studies on the Portrait of Caligula in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts


The essays in New Studies on the Portrait of Caligula in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts address art historical, historical, cultural and museological issues raised by one of two surviving intact statues of the Roman emperor Caligula (r. 37-41 C.E.). Contributions focus on the creation of a 3D-digital model of the statue and the search for traces of its original polychromy; the history of the statue from its creation to the present, including its rediscovery at a Julio-Claudian sanctuary at Bovillae; aspects of Caligula’s literary and visual portrayal in antiquity and modern historiography (including questions concerning the destruction of his portraits and the implications of Jewish sources for the study of Caligula); and the emperor’s image in popular culture.

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Peter J.M. Schertz, PhD University of Southern California (2006), is the Jack and Mary Ann Frable Curator of Ancient Art at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. He curated the exhibition The Horse in Ancient Greek Art (2017-2018) and serves as co-director of the Arch of Titus Digital Restoration Project of the Center for Israel Studies of Yeshiva University. He has written on the museum profession and the Second Temple of Jerusalem and currently serves on the Executive Committee of the Association of Art Museum Curators.
Bernard Frischer, Ph.D. University of Heidelberg (1975) is a digital archaeologist who writes about virtual heritage, Classics, and the survival of the Classical world. He started work in Virtual Heritage in the 1990s, when he was founding director of the UCLA Cultural Virtual Reality Laboratory. In 2016 he started a five-year project to digitize in 3D all the ancient Greek and Roman statues in Uffizi Gallery in Florence. He was co-founder and co-editor-in-chief of the online, peer-reviewed journal, Studies in Digital Heritage, published by the Indiana University Virtual World Heritage Laboratory, which he directs.

Contributors are: Peter J.M. Schertz; Bernard Frischer; Mark Abbe; Maria Grazia Picozzi; Paolo Liverani; Jan Stubbe Østergaard; Eric Varner; John Pollini; Vasily Rudich; Steven Fine; Amy Byrne.
Editor-in-Chief: Troels Myrup Kristensen, Aarhus University, Denmark.
Editor-in-Chief Emeritus: John M. Fossey, Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal, Canada.

Editorial Board:
Anna Collar, University of Southampton, UK.
Søren Handberg, University of Oslo, Norway.
Kathleen M. Lynch, University of Cincinnati, USA

Editorial Advisory Board:
Andreas Konecny, Universität Graz, Austria.
Duane Roller, Ohio State University, USA.
Massimo Osanna, Ministry of Culture, Italy.
Peter Stewart, University of Oxford, UK.
Lea Stirling, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Executive Editor for the Montréal Museum Catalogues: Professor John M. Fossey (McGill University & Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal)
Associate Editor ‘Montréal’: Beaudoin Caron (Université de Montréal)
Assistant Editors ‘Montréal’: Laure Sarah Éthier & Marilie Jacob (Université de Montréal)
Michael R. Taylor

List of Plates and Figures

1 Introduction
Peter Schertz

2 Introduction with Remarks on the Methodological Implications of the Digital Restoration of the Richmond Caligula
Bernard Frischer

3 The Togatus Statue of Caligula in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts: an Archaeological Description
Mark Abbe

4 Discovery and Modern History of the Richmond Caligula
Maria Grazia Picozzi

5 Caligula: Notes and a Hypothesis about the Ancient Context
Paolo Liverani

6 Reflections on the Typology and Context of the Richmond Caligula
Jan Stubbe Østergaard

7 Beyond Damnatio Memoriae: Memory Sanctions, Caligula’s Portraits and the Richmond Togatus
Eric R. Varner

8 The Image of Caligula: Myth and Reality
John Pollini

9 On the Reputation of Little-Boots
Vasily Rudich

10 Caligula and the Jews: Some Historiographic Reflections Occasioned by Gaius in Polychrome
Steven Fine

11 Caligula Now: Displaying Caligula to a 21st-Century Audience
Peter Schertz

Epilogue: VMFA’s New Display of Caligula
Peter Schertz

Appendix A: Technical Notes on the Conservation Treatment of the VMFA’s Marble Sculpture of Caligula
Amy F. Byrne

Appendix B: Letter to Amy Byrne on the Isotopic Analysis of the Marble of the Head and Torso of the Richmond Caligula (April 29, 2013)
Scott Pike

Appendix C: Publication History
Prepared by Mark Abbe

General Index
Those interested in the history, biography, and ancient and modern image of Emperor Caligula as well as the implications of digital technologies for the study and presentation of art.
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