Dancer, Nun, Ghost, Goddess

The Legend of Giō and Hotoke in Japanese Literature, Theater, Visual Arts, and Cultural Heritage

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Dancer, Nun, Ghost, Goddess explores the story of the dancers Giō and Hotoke, which first appeared in the fourteenth-century narrative Tale of the Heike. The story of the two love rivals is one of loss, female solidarity, and Buddhist salvation. Since its first appearance, it has inspired a stream of fiction, theatrical plays, and visual art works. These heroines have become the subjects of lavishly illustrated hand scrolls, ghosts on the noh stage, and Buddhist and Shinto goddesses. Physical monuments have been built to honor their memories; they are emblems of local pride and centerpieces of shared identity. Two beloved characters in the Japanese literary imagination, Giō and Hotoke are also models that have instructed generations of women on how to survive in a male-dominated world.

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Biographical Note

Roberta Strippoli, Ph.D. (Stanford 2006), is associate professor at Binghamton University (SUNY). A scholar of premodern Japanese literature and theater, she has published on the late-medieval narratives otogizōshi, including La monaca tuttofare, la donna serpente, il demone beone (Marsilio 2001).

Table of contents

Acknowledgements
List of Figures
Introduction
 The Giō (and Hotoke) Legend
 Overview
 A Note to the Reader
1 Women Entertainers in Heian and Medieval Japan: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century
 Women Entertainers between Fiction and History
   Literary Works by Male Authors
   Literary Works by Female Authors
   Integrated or Marginalized?
 Shirabyōshi
   Shirabyōshi Origins in Medieval Literary Sources
   The Range of Shirabyōshi Attire
  Shirabyōshi in History
   The Case of Shizuka Gozen
Shirabyōshi Performance
   Singing: imayō
   Dancing
   Imayō no sho
   The Gikeiki
   The Engyōbon Heike monogatari
   The Towazugatari
 Conclusion
2 The Story of Giō in the Heike monogatari
 The Story of Giō in the Engyōbon Heike monogatari
 Giō in Other Heike Texts
   What’s in a Name? Kami vs. Buddha
   Irresistible Ladies, Freakish Caprices
   Challenging Authority, Saving Each Other: The Bond between Women
 Conclusion
3 Still Seeking Salvation: The Transformation of the Giō Story in Noh Theater
 Giō as Seed in Zeami’s Sandō
 The Plays
  Giō
  Hotoke no hara ( Hotoke’s Field)
  Genzai Giō ( Present World Gio)
  Rō Giō ( Giō at the Prison)
 Conclusion
4 Giō in Late Medieval and Early Modern Narrative, Theater, and Visual Arts
 Performance Texts Related to the Legend of the
 Man-Made Sutra Island
  Kōwaka and Sekkyō
  Jōruri
  Yomihon
 Visual Representations of the Giō-Hotoke Story
  The Giō otogizōshi Texts
   The Spencer-bon: Giō monogatari
   The Ishikawabon: Giō
   The Keiōbon: Giō
   The Iwasebon: Giō
   The Tokudabon: Giō Ginyo monogatari
   Tokugawa Prints
 Conclusion
5 The Four Graves of Giō: Cultural Heritage Sites and Local Legends
 The Temple of Giō in Sagano, Kyoto
 Giō’s Hometown in Ōmi Province
 Welcome to Haramachi, Hotoke’s Village
 The Other Hotoke no Hara in Fukui Prefecture
 They Also Lived Here: Giō’s Grave in Fukui Prefecture
 Memorial Stupas of Giō and Ginyo in Kobe
 Conclusion
Epilogue
 The Modern Legacy of Giō and Hotoke
Shin Heike monogatari (The New Tale of the Heike)
Jotoku (Women’s Virtues)
 When Reality Takes after Fiction: The Life of Takaoka Chishō
 In Conclusion
Appendix A
 Translation of “Giō Ginyo” from the Genpei jōsuiki
Appendix B
 Translation of Genzai Giō (Present World Giō) a Noh Play
Bibliography
Index

Readership

All those interested in premodern Japanese literature and culture, in particular in women in performance, and the reproduction and transformation of iconic narratives over the course of the centuries.

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