Reframing the Diplomat Albertine Bloemendal offers a unique window onto the unofficial dimension of Cold War transatlantic relations by analyzing the diplomatic role of the Dutch Atlanticist Ernst van der Beugel as a government official and as a private diplomat. After a career with the Dutch government at the frontlines of the Marshall Plan, European integration and transatlantic relations, Van der Beugel pursued a more freestyle approach to diplomacy as a private citizen, most notably through his role as Secretary-General of the illustrious Bilderberg Meetings and his ties to the European and American foreign policy establishments. This book also traces his close friendship with Henry Kissinger, which provided him with a direct line to the White House.
Albertine Bloemendal, Ph.D. (2017), Leiden University, is a historian and Americanist currently working as a lecturer at that same university. She is specialized in New Diplomatic History and Cold War transatlantic relations and has published in popular and scholarly publications, such as
New Global Studies.
Table of contents
AcknowledgementsList of IllustrationsIntroduction Ernst van der Beugel The Atlantic Elite and the Unofficial “Atlantic Community” Ernst van der Beugel: A Case Study in New Diplomatic History Sources and Structure 1
“The Great Mistake of the West” Youth and Student Years The Worst Years: “The Idea of War is Growing more Familiar to us Every Day” The War Years Conclusion 2
“Present at the Creation” The Marshall Plan The Paris Conference To Washington The Washington Meetings The Marshall Plan: A Joint Venture between the Public and the Private Sector The Dutch Organization Public Private Linkages in the Netherlands Cooperation with the American Country Mission in The Hague A Comprehensive PR-Campaign The ERP: Developing Transatlantic Networks Hirschfeld’s Heir Conclusion 3
An Atlanticist European Historical Context: the Netherlands and the Road to Rome Political and Military Integration The Group of Ten Diverging Paths: The EDC and the Rise of the Gaullists Atlanticist vs. Europeanists and the Straightjacket of Administrative Discipline State Secretary: The Road to Rome Hope and Disillusionment: The Free Trade Area and Charles de Gaulle Conclusion: an Atlanticist European 4
Unofficial Ambassador for an Atlantic Community Statesman without Office KLM Connections Transition and Continuity The Unofficial Atlantic Community The Bilderberg Meetings Public Voice A Transatlantic Mediator Turbulence at KLM Conclusion 5
The Gaullist Challenge Atlantic Crisis: A Nightmare Come True Beyond ‘Facilitation’: The Run-Up to the Bilderberg Meeting in Cannes Cannes, 1963: “We Now Know What We Are Up Against” The MLF Conversion: From “Patch-Up Tool” to Instrument for Atlantic Cohesion Transatlantic Family Quarrels: The Lingering Rivalry of Europeanists vs. Atlanticists American Leadership: A Cri de Coeur Reverberations of Williamsburg MLF: The Battle Continues European Political Union Revisited: The Erhard Plan Conclusion 6
Defense, Détente and the “Average Man” Détente and the Soviet Threat A Decline in Accepted and Acceptable American Leadership The Atlantic Elite and the ‘Average Man’ The Dutch Scene: Nieuw Links, the PvdA and the Vietnam Letter The Dutch Defense Debate A Friend in the White House A Small Intervention that Could Make All the Difference The Biesheuvel Cabinet and the Committee of Civil and Military Experts In Pursuit of a Domestic Climate Conducive to Close Transatlantic Relations Conclusion 7
The Challenge of the Successor Generation A Very Serious Generation Problem Consultancy: The Ford Foundation and the Successor Generation Bilderberg and the Pursuit of a ‘Continuous Rejuvenation’ Bridging the Generation Gap: From Marienlyst to Woodstock The Old Guard in Defense of the Capitalist System Bilderberg and the Lockheed Scandal: An Existential Crisis “The Smoothest Coup d’état in the History of the Atlantic Alliance” “NATO-Professor” Conclusion
Conclusion: A Call for a New Diplomatic HistorySources & BibliographyIndex
All interested in Cold War transatlantic relations, unofficial diplomacy and transnational elite-networks, European integration and Dutch foreign politics.