The Coinage of Herod Antipas

A Study and Die Classification of the Earliest Coins of Galilee


The Coinage of Herod Antipas provides a comprehensive, multifaceted and up-to-date re-examination of the coins of Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea between 4/3 BCE and 39/40 CE. Kogon and Fontanille classify about 800 coins by obverse and reverse dies. From this die classification they generate, for the first time ever for this tetrarch, about 300 composite die images. In addition, the authors examine both technical aspects of the coins (e.g. metrology, mint output) and non-technical aspects (e.g. inscriptions, iconography). They also review the geographic distribution of provenanced coins. Through this analysis of the coins of Herod Antipas, Kogon and Fontanille provide a greater understanding of the Sitz im Leben of first century Galilee.
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Biographical Note

Aaron J. Kogon is an independent researcher specializing in Levantine coins from the Hasmonean and Roman periods. Kogon is the author of several papers on, inter alia, numismatic iconography and paleography, and countermarks.

Jean-Philippe Fontanille is an independent researcher specializing in Judaean coins. He has written numerous papers and monographs, including The Coins of Herod (Brill, 2012, with D.T. Ariel). Fontanille founded the Menorah Coin Project, which has classified 13,000 coins by die.

Table of contents

List of Figures and Tables

1 Introduction
 1.1  Documentary Sources for Antipas
 1.2  Herod Antipas’ Biography
 1.3  Economy of Galilee

2 The Coins
 2.1  Research on the Coins of Antipas
 2.2  Herod Antipas’ Numismatic Corpus
 2.3  Attribution of Type No. 1
 2.4  Division of the Coins into Groups

3 Denominations and Metrologies
 3.1  Series A (Coin No. 1)
 3.2  Series BF

4 Chronology
 4.1  Denoting Dates
 4.2  Reasons for Minting Each Series
 4.3  Misreading of Dates in the Literature

5 The Mints
 5.1  Series A (Coin No. 1)
 5.2  Series BF and the Foundation of Tiberias

6 Dies and Minting
 6.1  Die Cutting
 6.2  Die Study
 6.3  Relative Quantities of Types
 6.4  Die Axes
 6.5  Minting Process
 6.6  Composition

7 The Inscriptions
 7.1  The Name of Herod Antipas
 7.2  [GREEK] (Herod the Tetrarch)
 7.3  [GREEK] (Of Herod the Tetrarch) and Variants
 7.4  [GREEK] (Herod the Tetrarch) and Variants
 7.5  [GREEK] (Tiberias) and Variants
 7.6  [GREEK] (To Gaius Caesar Germanicus)
 7.7  Letter Forms

8 The Iconography
 8.1  Aniconism
 8.2  Palm Tree
 8.3  Grain (?)
 8.4  Wreath
 8.5  Reed
 8.6  Palm Branch
 8.7  Cluster of Dates
 8.8  Iconography of Type No. 14

9 Geographical Distribution
 9.1  Gaulanitis
 9.2  Upper Galilee
 9.3  Lower Galilee
 9.4  Decapolis
 9.5  Judaea
 9.6  Samaria
 9.7  Outside Palestine
 9.8  Summary and Analysis of the Provenanced Finds

10 The Legacy of Antipas’ Coins
 10.1  Imitations of Series CE by the Roman Administration and Agrippa II
 10.2  Antipas’ Coins during the First Jewish Revolt

Appendix A. Tooled and Forged Coins
Appendix B. Provenanced Finds
Die Study Plates


Researchers, biblical historians and students interested in the coins of Herod Antipas and the application of numismatics to better understand the culture, social climate and economy of first century Galilee.