The Rhythm of Modernization: How Values Change over Time

Author: Raül Tormos
In The Rhythm of Modernization, Raül Tormos analyses the pace at which belief systems change across the developed world during the modernization process. It is often assumed that value change follows the slow rhythm of generational replacement. This book, however, reports trends that contradict this assumption in the field of values. Challenging Inglehart’s modernization theory, the transition from traditional to modern values happens much quicker than predicted. Many “baby-boomers” who were church-going, morally conservative materialists when they were young, become unchurched and morally tolerant postmaterialists in their later years. Using surveys from multiple countries over many years, and applying cutting-edge statistical techniques, this book shows how citizens quickly adapt their belief systems to new circumstances throughout their lives.

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Raül Tormos, Ph.D. (2013), Autonomous University of Barcelona, is a Senior Researcher at the Centre d’Estudis d’Opinió (Center for Opinion Studies), the official polling institute of the Catalan Government in Spain. His research appears in European Political Science Review, Social Indicators Research, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, among other journals.
List of Illustrations

 1 The Research Problem
 2 Outline of the Book

1 Theoretical Framework
 1 Theories of Values
  1.1  Values and Attitudes
  1.2  Schools of Values
  1.3  Rokeach
  1.4  Schwartz
  1.5  Inglehart
  1.6  The Measurement of Values
  1.7  Values Assumptions
 2 Value Change
 3 Adult Socialization
  3.1  The Persistence Model
  3.2  The Impressionable Years Model
  3.3  The Aging-Stability Hypothesis
  3.4  Lifelong Openness
  3.5  Inconclusive Conclusions
 4 Political Culture and Models of Learning
 5 The Individual Modernity Syndrome
  5.1  Modernization and Postmodernization
  5.2  Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy
  5.3  Gender Equality and Secularization
  5.4  Cultural Evolution
  5.5  Welzel’s Emancipative Values
 6 Hypotheses

2 Data and Method
 1 Scope of the Analysis and Data
  1.1  The Eurobarometer Trend File
  1.2  The wvs/evs Integrated Values Surveys
 2 Disentangling Time-Related Phenomena
 3 The Age, Period, and Cohort Dilemma
 4 The Logic of Time-Series Analysis
 5 Space and Time as Contexts in Multilevel Models
  5.1  Dynamic Comparative Multilevel Models
  5.2  Summary

3 Postmaterialist Values and Lifetime Learning
 1 Inglehart’s Theory of Postmaterialism
 2 Evidence from Repeated Cross- Section Data
 3 The Counterfactual Procedure
 4 A Descriptive Time-Series Analysis
 5 A Multivariate Dynamic Model
 6 Conclusion

4 The Pace of Secularization
 1 Theories of Religious Change
 2 The Age, Period and Cohort Effects Debate
 3 Declining Church Attendance
 4 The Belgian Case
  4.1  Data and Method
  4.2  Results
  4.3  Concluding Remarks
 5 The Importance of Religion
  5.1  Main Hypotheses
  5.2  Individual-Level Covariates
  5.3  Time-Invariant Country-Level Covariates
  5.4  Time-Varying Country-Level Covariates
  5.5  Across-Country over Time Data Analysis
  5.6  Country-by-Country Regressions
  5.7  Dynamic Comparative Multilevel Analysis
  5.8  Concluding Remarks
 6 The Importance of God
  6.1 Dynamic Comparative Multilevel Models
  6.2 Concluding Remarks
 7 Conclusion

5 A Fast Turn in Moral Norms
 1 The Decline of Traditional Morality
 2 Tolerance of Homosexuality: from Rejection to Acceptance
 3 Modernization and Attitudes to Homosexuality
 4 Alternative Conceptualizations
  4.1  Tolerance, Trust, and Inequality
  4.2  Sexual Prejudice
  4.3  Conservative Attitudes
  4.4  Determinants of Attitudes to Homosexuality
  4.5  Dependent Variable
  4.6  Research Questions
 5 Descriptive over Time Cross-Country Analysis
 6 Dynamic Comparative Multilevel Models
 7 Conclusion


Author Index
Thematic Index
Scholars and specialists, institutes (E.g. GESIS, ICPSR, HSE, CESSI, etc.), academic libraries, social science practitioners, graduate students in political science, sociology and social psychology interested in values research, social change, modernization, public opinion, comparative research, quantitative methods, and age-period-cohort effects.