Chinese Émigré Intellectuals and Their Quest for Liberal Values in the Cold War, 1949–1969


By examining the life and thought of self-exiled Chinese intellectuals after 1949 by placing them in the context of the global Cold War, Kenneth Kai-chung Yung argues that Chinese intellectuals living in Hong Kong, Taiwan and overseas Chinese communities in the 1950s could not escape from the global anti-utopian Cold War currents. Each of them responded to such currents quite differently. Yung also examines different models of nation-building advocated by the émigré intellectuals and argues in his book that these émigré intellectuals inherited directly the multifaceted Chinese liberal tradition that was well developed in the Republican era (1911–1949). Contrary to existing literature that focus mostly on the New Confucians or the liberals, this study highlights that moderate socialists cannot be ignored as an important group of Chinese émigré intellectuals in the first two decades of the Cold War era. This book will inspire readers who are concerned about the prospects for democracy in contemporary China by painting a picture of the Chinese self-exiles’ experiences in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Kenneth Kai-chung Yung obtained a Ph.D. in History at the University of Sydney, Australia. He is a historian in modern China and postwar Hong Kong. He has published articles in various journals such as Twentieth-century China, Journal of Chinese Studies and Journal of Chinese Overseas. He is now working at the University of Hong Kong.

Introduction: China Rescue, Democratization, and the Émigré Schools of Thought in the Cold War Era
 1 The Three Émigré Schools of Thought and Their Adherents
 2 Relevance of the Cold War Émigrés to Contemporary China
 3 Major Questions to Be Addressed
 4 Description of Chapters and Major Findings of the Book

1 Saving China from Communism and Fighting for Democracy: Prioritizing the Two Tasks
 1 The Loyal Critic to Chiang Kai-shek: The Case of Xu Fuguan
 2 Yin Haiguang and His Pursuit of Democratization
 3 Zhang Junmai and His Prioritization of Recovering the Mainland
 4 Conclusion

2 The Influence of Cold War Currents on Chinese Émigré Intellectuals
 1 Liberals Who Departed from Socialist Tendencies
 2 Moderate Socialists Who Remained Consistent in Their Beliefs
 3 Cold War Currents as a Stimulus for the Revitalization of Confucianism
 4 Conclusion

3 In Search of a Liberal-Scientific Modern China: The Case of Yin Haiguang
 1 Yin Haiguang’s Quest for a Revival of the “May Fourth Spirit”
 2 Yin Haiguang’s Views on Democracy and Freedom, 1947–1956
 3 Conflicts with the New Confucians and the Guomindang Officials
 4 Yin Haiguang’s Views on Science in the Late 1950s
 5 Yin Haiguang in the 1960s: His Reappraisal of Chinese Culture
 6 Conclusion

4 Balancing Tradition and Modernity: The Case of Zhang Junmai
 1 The Confucian Dimension of National Reconstruction, 1949–1969
 2 Revival of Confucianism as an Aid to Modernization
 3 Confucianism and Zhang Junmai’s Political Ideals
 4 Conclusion

5 Confucian Ideals for the Chinese Nation with a Liberal Tendency: The Case of Xu Fuguan
 1 Xu Fuguan’s Confucian Political Ideals in the 1950s
 2 Xu Fuguan’s Cultural Ideals in the Late 1950s and 1960s
 3 The 1958 Joint Manifesto on Chinese Culture
 4 Conclusion

General Conclusion
Selected Bibliography 191
People who are interested in modern Chinese history, Chinese intellectual history, history of the Cold War, history of Hong Kong and history of Taiwan.