A Grammar of Makasar

A Language of South Sulawesi, Indonesia


The book is a grammar of the Makasar language, spoken by about 2 million people in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Makasarese is a head–marking language which marks arguments on the predicate with a system of pronominal clitics, following an ergative/absolutive pattern. Full noun phrases are relatively free in order, while pre-predicate focus position which is widely used. The phonology is notable for the large number of geminate and pre–glottalised consonant sequences, while the morphology is characterised by highly productive affixation and pervasive encliticisation of pronominal and aspectual elements. The work draws heavily on literary sources reaching back more than three centuries; this tradition includes two Indic based scripts, a system based on Arabic, and various Romanised conventions.

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Anthony Jukes, Ph.D. (2006), University of Melbourne, has worked on documenting and describing several languages of Sulawesi (Indonesia) especially Makassarese, and written about language language endangerment and documentation.

Paul James Sidwell, Ph.D. (1999) University of Melbourne, has published extensively on the history of the Austroasiatic languages. He was a Senior Research Fellow at the Australian National University until 2016 and subsequently worked in forensic linguistics as a private consultant.
List of Figures and Tables
Abbreviations of Grammatical Terms
A Note on Spelling Conventions
Abbreviations of Sources for Example Sentences

1 Introduction
 1.1  The Area and Inhabitants
 1.2  Historical Background
 1.3  Religion and Culture
 1.4  Comparative and Historical Data
 1.5  Linguistic Ecology
 1.6  Previous Studies of Makasar
 1.7  Work on Related Languages
 1.8  Sources of Data

2 Makasar Writing and Literature
 2.1  Makasar and Bugis Scripts
 2.2  Arabic Script (serang)
 2.3  Romanised Orthography
 2.4  Literature

3 Phonetics & Phonology
 3.1  Phoneme Inventory
 3.2  Phonotactics
 3.3  Morphophonological Processes

4 Morphological Units
 4.1  Roots
 4.2  Affixes
 4.3  Clitics
 4.4  Affixal Clitics
 4.5  Particles
 4.6  Words

5 Word Classes
 5.1  Root Class and Word Class
 5.2  Nouns
 5.3  Verbs
 5.4  Adjectives
 5.5  Adverbs
 5.6  Pronouns
 5.7  Locatives
 5.8  Numerals
 5.9  Classifiers, Partitives and Measures
 5.10  Prepositions
 5.11  Conjunctions
 5.12  Discourse Particles
 5.13  Interjections

6 Nouns and Noun Phrases
 6.1  Subclasses of Noun
 6.2  Nominal Derivation
 6.3  The Noun Phrase

7 Basic Clause Structure
 7.1  Word Order
 7.2  Clitic Pronouns
 7.3  Ambient Clauses
 7.4  Intransitive Clauses
 7.5  Semi-transitive Clauses
 7.6  Transitive Clauses
 7.7  Ditransitive Clauses

8 Voice/Valence-Signalling Prefixes
 8.1  The Verb Prefixes
 8.2  Actor Focus aN
 8.3  Passive ni
 8.4  Involuntary/Accidental taC
 8.5  Other Accounts of South Sulawesi Prefixes
 8.6  Voice

9 Causative pa– and Related Forms
 9.1  Causative pa
 9.2  Causative paka
 9.3  Experiencer-Oriented pi

10 Applicative Suffixes
 10.1  The Suffix Form –i
 10.2  The Suffix Form –ang
 10.3  i and –ang Together

11 Other Verbal Affixes
 11.1  Unitary/Mutual/Reciprocal si
 11.2  Erratic piti⟩rdp–V⟨i
 11.3  Subjunctive –a

12 Grammatical Relations
 12.1  Grammatical Relations
 12.2  Focus and Topic Marking

13 Other Clause Types
 13.1  Imperatives
 13.2  Questions
 13.3  Negation
 13.4  Existentials
 13.5  Ascriptives/Presentatives

Appendix A: Excerpt of the Gowa Chronicle from Manuscript KIT 668–216
Appendix B: Karaeng Ammanaka Bembe: The Karaeng Who Gave Birth to a Goat
Appendix C: A'jappa–jappa ri Bulukumba: A Trip to Bulukumba
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