Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics

A Study of Variation and Change in the Modal Systems of World Englishes


Author: Beke Hansen
In Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics, Beke Hansen analyses variation and change in the modal systems of three second-language varieties of English in Asia by taking a sociolinguistic approach to corpus data. Her study focuses on the modal and semi-modal verbs of strong obligation and necessity in Hong Kong English, Indian English, and Singapore English based on the relevant ICE component corpora. She adopts a typologically-informed perspective on variation in World Englishes by comparing the structures of the speakers’ first languages with the structures of the emergent varieties in the expression of epistemic modality. Beyond this, she analyses language change by constructing apparent-time scenarios to compensate for the lack of diachronic corpora in World Englishes.

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Beke Hansen received her PhD in 2018 from the University of Kiel and currently works as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Freiburg.
List of Illustrations

1 Introduction
 1.1 Modality, Mood, and Modal System
 1.2 Types of Modality
 1.3 Modal Verbs
 1.4 Semi-modal Verbs
 1.5 The (Socio-)Linguistic Variable Studied
 1.6 Subjectivity vs. Objectivity
 1.7 Brief Overview of the Chapters

2 Previous Research
 2.1 Studies on L1 Varieties of English
 2.2 Studies on L2 Varieties of English
 2.3 Research Desiderata
 2.4 Towards a Postcolonial Research Agenda
 2.5 Summary

3 The Theoretical Framework
 3.1 Kachru’s Three Concentric Circles Model
 3.2 Schneider’s (2007) Dynamic Model
  3.2.1 English in Hong Kong
  3.2.2 English in India
  3.2.3 English in Singapore
 3.3 Mufwene’s (2001) Feature Pool Model
 3.4 Biewer’s (2015) Adapted Feature Pool Model
 3.5 Summary

4 Methodology
 4.1 The ICE Corpora
  4.1.1 The ICE Metadata and Sociolinguistics
  4.1.2 The Social Structure of ICE - HK and ICE - IND *
 4.2 Questionnaire
 4.3 Extracting the Dependent Variable
  4.3.1 Coding the Independent Variables
  4.3.2 Multivariate Analysis
 4.4 Summary

5 Obligation and Necessity in ENL and ESL
 5.1 Regional Variation in Epistemic Modality
 5.2 Regional Variation in Root Modality
  5.2.1 The Main Competitors: Must and have to
  5.2.2 More Marginal Members: Need to and have got to
 5.3 Summary

6 The Feature Pool of Obligation and Necessity
 6.1 BrE Historical Input
  6.1.1 The Grammaticalisation of must
  6.1.2 The Grammaticalisation of have to
  6.1.3 The Grammaticalisation of have got to
  6.1.4 The Grammaticalisation of need to
  6.1.5 Summary: The BrE Input Variety
  6.1.6 Frequency Patterns after Grammaticalisation
  6.1.7 Founder Effect?
 6.2 Substrate Languages
 6.3 AmE influence
 6.4 Summary

7 Selection Principles in the Feature Pool
 7.1 Transfer Principles
 7.2 Cultural Motivations
 7.3 Principles of SLA
 7.4 Cognitive Principles
 7.5 Summary

8 Apparent-time Developments
 8.1 The Apparent-time Method in Sociolinguistics
 8.2 The Apparent-time Method in Corpus Linguistics
 8.3 Obligation and Necessity in Apparent Time
 8.4 Summary

9 Competition between must and have to
 9.1 Some Basics of Binary Logistic Regression
 9.2 Local Competition between must and have to
 9.3 Global Competition between must and have to
 9.4 ‘Glocal’ Competition between must and have to

10 Thematic Conclusion of the Study
 10.1 Variation in the Modal Systems of WE
 10.2 Change in the Modal Systems of WE
 10.3 Modal System(s) of WE

11 Methodological Implications of the Study
 11.1 Small is More Beautiful? Bigger is Better?
  11.1.1 Smaller vs. Bigger vs. Rich Data
 11.2 Sociolinguistics and Corpus Linguistics
  11.2.1 Potential and Limitations
  11.2.2 Pushing the Limits
 11.3 Summary and Conclusion

 Chapter 3
 Chapter 4
 Chapter 5
 Chapter 6
 Chapter 7
 Chapter 8
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