#BRokenPromises, Black Deaths, & Blue Ribbons

Understanding, Complicating, and Transcending Police-Community Violence


Many urban centres are shaken to their core with mistrust between communities and law enforcement. Erosion was exacerbated in the Obama-era, intensified during the 2016 campaign, and is violently manifested in Trump’s presidency. The promise of uniting communities articulated by leaders lays broken. The text suggests that promise of prosperous and engaged urban citizenry will remain broken until we can honestly address the following unanswered questions: What factors contribute to the creation of divided communities? What happened to erode trust between community and law enforcement? What concerns and challenges do law enforcement officials have relating to policing within urban centres? What are the experiences of residents and police? And, finally, whose lives really matter, and how do we move forward?

Contributors are: Lawrence Baines, Amber C. Bryant, Erica L. Bumpers, Issac Carter, Justin A. Cole, Erin Dreeszen, Jaquial Durham, Antonio Ellis, Idara Essien, Jeffrey M. Frank, Beatriz Gonzalez, Aaron J. Griffen, Jennie L. Hanna, Diane M. Harnek Hall, Cleveland Hayes, Deanna Hayes-Wilson, Stacey Hill, Jim L. Hollar, Taharee A. Jackson, Melinda Jackson-Jefferson, Sharon D. Jones-Eversley, Stephen M. Lentz, Patricia Maloney, Isiah Marshall, Jr., Derrick McKisick, Rebecca Neal, Ariel Quinio, Jacqueline M. Rhoden-Trader, Derrick Robinson, Ebony B. Rose, Randa Suleiman, Clarice Thomas, Kerri J. Tobin, Eddie Vanderhorst, Rolanda L. Ward, Deondra Warner, John Williams, Deleon M. Wilson, Geoffrey L. Wood, Jemimah L. Young, and Jie Yu.

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Biographical Note
Kenneth J. Fasching-Varner, Ph.D. (2009), The Ohio State University, is the Shirely B. Barton Endowed Associate Professor of Education at Louisiana State University. He has published many articles, books, and book chapters addressing race and racial equity, including Trayvon Martin, Race, and American Justice: Writing Wrong (Sense, 2014).

Kerri J. Tobin, Ph.D. (2011), Vanderbilt University, is Assistant Professor of Education at Louisiana State University. She has published numerous articles, books, and book chapters on homelessness and social justice, including Homelessness Comes To School (Corwin Press, 2011).

Stephen M. Lenz, J.D. (2002), Syracuse University, is Instructor of Paralegal Studies at Baton Rouge Community College. Lentz is a former Assistant District Attorney in Luzerne County Pennsylvania, as well as a classroom teacher in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and New York.
Table of contents
Black Bodies, Blue Ribbons: An Introduction
Kenneth J. Fasching-Varner, Kerri J. Tobin and Stephen M. Lentz

1. The Jim Crow Effect on Federal Policy and Practice: Social Engineering and the Making of Metropolis in Black and White
Issac Carter, Beatriz Gonzalez and Cleveland Hayes
2. The Costs of Whistling, Orange Juice, and Skittles: An Anti-Black Examination of the Extrajudicial Killings of Black Youth
Justin A. Coles
3. The Myth of Post-Emancipation: Utilizing the 1857 Dred Scott Decision and the 2017 Chicago Department of Justice Report to Examine Hyper-Policing, Black Freedom, and Strategies for Resistance
Ebony Rose
4. East vs. West: The Industrious and Inconsistent Rising of Buffalo, New York
Roland L. Ward and Isiah Marshall Jr
5. Historical Categorical Inequality: The Creation of Two Segregated Cities within an Urban Centre
Geoffrey L. Wood
6. Segregation Then, Segregation Now: A Tale of Two Cities within One Urban Area
Melinda Jackson-Jefferson and Deondra Warner
7. The Double Penalty: How School and Neighborhood Segregation Affects Racial Conflict
Patricia Maloney
8. All That Glitters Isn’t Gold
Deanna Hayes-Wilson
9. The Contested New Territory: Integration and Dissatisfaction
Ariel Quinio
10. Cranes, Cones, and Invisible Walls: How Zip Codes, Economic Development, and Housing Patterns Strengthen Segregation
Derrick Robinson 11. Fighting the Powers That Be: Examining Conflicting Dual Legitimate Powers Operative in Urban America
Sharon D. Jones-Eversley, Diane M. Harnek Hall and Jacqueline M. Rhoden-Trader
12. The Decreasing Value of Labor in the Modern Age Broken Promise: Black Deaths and Blue Ribbons
Derrick D. McKisick
13. A Tale of Two Cities: A Divide of White and Black Non-Unification
Erica L. Bumpers
14. Living in a Warzone
Jaquial Durham
15. Police Brutality in North Charleston, South Carolina: Somebody Has to Say Something
Antonio L. Ellis and Eddie Vanderhorst
16. An Inspired Protest: Notes from Baton Rouge 2016 Protests
Deleon M. Wilson
17. We Don’t Want No Trouble: Inspiring White Accomplices and Solidarity in the Age of All Lives Matter
Taharee A. Jackson
18. On the Frontlines: The Role of Social Media in the Charlotte Protests
Tiffany Hollis
19. Truths We Don’t Share
Erin Dreeszen
20. Under-Educated and Over-Adjudicated
Jemimah L. Young
21. The Role of Faith in Advocating for Black Minds
Rebecca A. Neal and Idara Essien
22. Blacklivesmatter, But Only So Much? Evaluating Per Pupil Expenditures in Two Detroit Metropolitan School Districts
Amber C. Bryant
23. Us Versus Them: Charter Schools, Vouchers, and the New Segregation
Lawrence Baines, Jennie Hanna and Stacey Hill
24. Policing the School
Kerri J. Tobin and Stephen M. Lentz
25. The Hardened Heart
Jeff Frank
26. Alternatives to Over Utilizing Law Enforcement in Our Schools: Hearing from Administrators & Teachers in Milwaukee County Schools
Randa Suleiman and Jim Hollar
27. Education, Economics & Segregation in Baton Rouge
John Williams, III, Amber C. Bryant and Chance W. Lewis
28. What Does It Mean to be United?
Clarice Thomas and Martha Donovan
29. Wounds and Band-Aids in a Divided Society
Jie Yu
30. White Matters
Aaron J. Griffen
All interested and committed to social justice including academic, community members and social activists, and political leaders who would like to take seriously the call to heal communities.
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